Preschoolers learning to communicate via AAC systems typically start by using one symbol at a time. Many go on to construct 2–3 symbol utterances, but make mistakes along the way. In this study, the researchers looked back at data from a prior study to explore 10 three–four-year-olds’ errors when producing multi-symbol utterances. In total, they made errors on 45% of their utterances!
We’ll get to those errors, but first, some background. All the preschoolers had a speech sound disorder/delay diagnosis, although one child also had a secondary ASD diagnosis and another was diagnosed with cerebral palsy. During the intervention sessions, the kids used an AAC device (an iPad with Proloquo2Go) to describe videos, then the clinician briefly modeled the targets and facilitated play-based therapy for 20 minutes. Keep in mind that the preschoolers didn’t have access to the device outside of the study, and 8 of the 10 participants actually had no prior experience with AAC before the intervention.
Because AAC literature has focused heavily on inversions (word order reversals), the researchers checked for other error patterns.
The main takeaway? Inversions and omissions were more common than substitutions and additions overall, but there were differences across targets and—business as usual for AAC studies—there were differences across the children in the study.
So, what can we do with this information? For starters, when you collect data, think beyond the number of words in the utterance. Instead, try classifying the types of errors the students are making. Are they inversions, substitutions, omissions, or additions? We’d wager that you’d approach instruction just a little bit differently depending on the error type—and that type of modification to your instruction could make all the difference!
FYI: As we mentioned, data analyzed here was originally collected for a different study. Although the data set isn’t perfect, this is the first study we have that conceptualizes the errors these children might be making. Also, keep in mind these targets were chosen specifically for speakers of English, which has a Subject + Verb + Object syntax structure.
Binger, C., Richter, K., Taylor, A., Williams, E. K., & Willman, A. (2019). Error patterns and revisions in the graphic symbol utterances of 3- and 4- year old children who need augmentative and alternative communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. doi:10.1080/07434618.2019.1576224