And more...

  • Dai et al. found that bilingual caregivers of children with ASD and DD can communicate with their children in both languages without adverse effect on their children’s language functioning. (Feel like you already knew that? Well here’s a citation for ya!)

  • Fusaroli et al. found that parents’ language complexity predicted the complexity of their toddler with ASD’s language four months down the road. This finding suggests that modeling grammatically rich and complex language for toddlers with ASD may benefit their language development (as opposed to over-simplified telegraphic speech). While we need an intervention study to tell us if that is truly the case, research has already demonstrated this for toddlers with language delays (which you can read about in a previous review here).

  • To get a better feel for how underserved and under-identified families access health information about development, Gallagher et al. conducted focus groups of parents of typically developing and children with disabilities who lived in an urban area and experienced low income and low literacy skills. The authors found that while these parents knew about a variety of sources of information, they experienced and reported barriers to health literacy resources (e.g., printed materials were too dense, or not literal enough). The parents in the focus groups offered suggestions for making developmental health information accessible to a more diverse audience. This is a good read if you are ever in a position to develop marketing or awareness materials.

  • EI SLPs sometimes encounter (and experience!) mom-guilt when serving families whose mothers work. This study was exploratory but offers us a bit of information we can share when the need arises. Laing and Bergelson found that 17-month-olds’ vocabulary measures of noun type and token did not differ significantly between toddlers of full-time working and stay-at-home mothers. Interestingly, toddlers who experienced mixed care (so their moms worked part time, or stayed home early and went back to work as their children got older), did have more noun types and tokens than kids who experienced one type of care.

  • McLeod et al. examined teacher–child interactions during Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) sessions. All children in the study had DLD and attended Head Start. Two teacher inputs were linked to greater usage of target vocabulary words by children during EMT sessions: (1) following the child’s attentional or communicative lead and (2) providing vocabulary supports to teach or clarify the meanings of target words. We’ve written about parent-implemented EMT for children with DLD before. For more descriptive info about teacher input and child vocabulary go check out the article.

  • Can you screen “everybody” (e.g. via routine pediatricians’ checkups) and reliably catch autism early, between 14–36 months, without over-identification? Yes, probably! This meta-analysis by Sanchez-Garcia provides quantitative data in support of universal toddler screenings for ASD.

  

Dai, Y.G., Burke, J.D., Naigles, L., Eigsti, I.M., & Fein, D.A. (2018). Language abilities in monolingual- and bilingual- exposed children with autism or other developmental disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2018.08.001.

Fusaroli, R., Weed, E., Fein, D., & Naigles, L. (2019). Hearing me hearing you: Reciprocal effects between child and parent language in autism and typical development. Cognition183, 1–18.

Gallagher, P. A., Greenberg, D., Campbell, J. M., Stoneman, Z., & Feinberg, I. Z. (2018). Early identification and connection to services among urban parents who have low income and low-literacy skills. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1088357618794913.

Laing, C. & Bergelson, E. (2019). Mothers’ work status and 17-month olds’ productive vocabulary. Infancy, 24(1), 101–109.

McLeod, R.H., Kaiser, A.P., & Hardy, J.K. (2018). The relation between teacher vocabulary use in play and child vocabulary outcomes. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0271121418812675

Sánchez-García, A.B., Galindo-Villardón, P., Nieto-Librero, A.B. et al. (2019). Toddler Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-03865-2.

What, who, when, or how: What matters in shared book reading?

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We all know reading books with our kids and clients is wonderful for language development, but what about shared reading makes it so beneficial to learning vocabulary? This meta-analysis included 38 studies to determine what elements of shared book reading contribute to word learning in typically developing* children ages 33 months–12 years. Good news, shared book reading works! The authors found that children learned almost half of the words they were exposed to during shared reading, but some factors seemed to matter more than others. For example, more exposures to target words was better for word learning, and a dialogic reading style helped children learn 1.22 more words on average than non-dialogic styles. In other words, interactive reading styles with many opportunities to hear and use new words contribute to word learning. No surprise there! What was surprising is that it didn’t matter who read the book. Across studies, children did just as well on word learning measures after shared reading with their parents as they did with researchers or teachers. And the length of time between reading and testing did not affect word learning, so either immediacy wasn’t an important factor for these children, or they retained knowledge of the words they learned during reading. So, if you aren’t already, try incorporating story books into your sessions, and include dialogic reading as part of a home program or coaching session!

*Note: This meta-analysis only included studies on typically developing children, but there are studies out there on implementing therapy techniques into dialogic reading: try here and here for some ideas, and here for more on dialogic reading!

This review appears in both our Early Intervention and Preschool & School-Age sections this month!

Flack, Z. M., Field, A. P, & Horst, J. (2017). The effects of shared storybook reading on word learning: a meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/dev0000512.