Bottema–Beutel et al. found that parents of children with ASD used more utterances that were related to the object or activity that the child was focusing on compared to parents of typically developing children. And these utterances (esp. comments, as opposed to directives) were particularly effective in establishing joint engagement with reciprocal turn-taking and imitation between the parent and child.
Gunderson, et al., found that parental praise (specifically process praise (“praise for effort and strategies”) from ages 1–3 years indirectly predicts math & reading performance seven years later, in 4th grade. Specifically, praise related to effort was found to influence the children’s beliefs that intelligence is malleable. Keep on praising that hard work!
Loy et al. considered parent and infant behaviors that have been shown to predict joint attention in previous research, and examined how these behaviors might relate to later language outcomes. Findings provide evidence to support the notion that attentive, responsive, interactive caregivers are the key ingredient when it comes to establishing joint attention with infants and toddlers.
Bottema-Beutel, K., Lloyd, B., Watson, L., & Yoder, P. (2018). Bidirectional influences of caregiver utterances and supported joint engagement in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/aur.1928
Gunderson, E. A., Sorhagen, N. S., Gripshover, S. J., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2018). Parent praise to toddlers predicts fourth grade academic achievement via children’s incremental mindsets. Developmental Psychology, 54(3), 397–409.