Survivor: Home-based early literacy edition

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Early literacy skills are crucial to set the stage for learning to read. We know that kids with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are likely to struggle with skills like print knowledge. There are only so many hours in the (preschool) day, so some early literacy programs are designed to be completed by caregivers at home. However, experience tells us that not all caregivers will complete home literacy activities. In this study, Justice and colleagues wanted to find out which caregivers might finish or not finish a home program. 

The researchers used a technique called survival analysis, which sounds dramatic, but “survival” in this case just means finishing the book reading program (phew). They looked at results from a previous study on the effect of different incentives on caregivers’ participation. Caregivers of 4- to 5-year-old children with DLD were asked to complete the (free!) Sit Together and Read (STAR) program. The program includes 15 books paired with print-focused activities that are completed in 4 sessions per week over 15 weeks. Caregivers recorded their reading sessions and reported back to the researchers regularly. The main findings included:

  • Only 55% of caregivers completed the program

  • Of families who dropped out, a third never started the program at all

  • Families were less likely to drop out early if they received incentives of money ($.50 per session) or encouragement (positive text messages)

  • Higher-SES caregivers were more likely to complete the program than lower-SES caregivers

  • Caregivers of children with higher print knowledge skills were more likely to complete the program than caregivers of children with lower print knowledge skills. 

So what can we do with these findings? When asking caregivers to complete home literacy activities, we need to have realistic expectations for their participation. The biggest barrier seems to be getting started, so we can focus our efforts on supporting caregivers early in the program. While most of us probably can’t pay families for completing a program, sending encouraging texts or notes to remind them how important reading is might help increase participation. And lower-SES caregivers or caregivers of children with low print knowledge skills are likely to need the most support of all.

 

Justice, L. M., Chen, J., Jiang, H., Tambyraja, S., & Logan, J. (2019). Early-literacy intervention conducted by caregivers of children with language impairment: Implementation patterns using survival analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03925-1

And more...

  • Accardo and colleagues provide an overview of effective writing interventions for school-age children with ASD. Most interventions took place in the classroom and used mixed approaches, combining “ingredients” like graphic organizers, video modeling, and constant time delay—a prompting strategy borrowed from ABA. Within the review, Tables 1 and 2 give an idea of what each one looked like, so check that out.

  • Baker & Blacher assessed behavior and social skills in 187 13-year-olds with ASD, intellectual disabilities (ID), or both. They found that having ID along with ASD was not associated with more behavior problems or less developed social skills as compared with ASD only.

  • Cerdán et al. found that eighth graders who had poor comprehension skills correctly answered reading comprehension questions more often when the question was followed by a rephrased, simplified statement telling them exactly what they needed to do.

  • Curran et al. found that preschool-aged children who are DHH and receive remote microphones systems in their homes have significantly better discourse skills (but no better vocabulary or syntax skills) than otherwise-matched children who don’t get those systems.

  • Facon & Magis found that language development, particularly vocabulary and syntax comprehension, does not plateau prematurely in people with Down Syndrome relative to people with other forms of intellectual disability. Language skills continue to show growth in both populations into early adulthood. (We’ve previously reviewed specific interventions that have resulted in language gains among older children and teens with Down Syndrome. )

  • Hu et al. suggest that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can improve matching skills in school-age children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Although techy and exciting, CAI on its own isn’t enough—evidence-based instructional strategies like prompting and reinforcement have to be programmed in, too. This CAI used discrete trial training, and was more efficient (fewer prompts and less therapy time were needed for mastery!) than a traditional, teacher-implemented approach with flashcards.

  • Lim et al. found that the literacy instruction program MULTILIT was effective with school-age children with Down syndrome. MULTILIT combines phonics and sight word recognition instruction, geared toward children with students who are “Making Up Lost Time in Literacy” (MULTILIT; get it?). The program was implemented 1:1 for 12 weeks, and the students made gains in phonological awareness, word reading and spelling. MULTILIT has been investigated by the developers, but this is the first time it’s been studied by other researchers—and with kids with Down syndrome in particular.  Note: This article wasn’t fully reviewed because the training (provided only in Australia) is not available to the majority of our readers.

  • Muncy et al. surveyed SLPs and school psychologists and found that, in general, these professionals are underprepared to assess and treat children with hearing loss and other, co-occurring disabilities, and that they lack confidence in this area. Participants reported many barriers to valuable collaboration with other professionals, like audiologists (hint: there aren’t enough of them!), and that they want more training in this area.

  • Schlosser et al. found that 3–7 year old children with ASD accurately identified more animated symbols than static symbols. The animated symbols represented verbs; for example, depicting a person turning around versus a still line drawing of “turn around.” It makes sense to see action verbs—well—in action; however, researchers acknowledge we can’t make grid displays full of animated symbols since that could be overstimulating. The next step is to test the effects of animation on symbol identification with other more well-known symbols sets like PCS.

  • Scott et al. used science books and a signed dialogic reading program with an 11-year-old Deaf student, and found increases in the student’s ability to answer comprehension questions.

  • St John et al. found that 92% of their sample of children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome also had a communication impairment. Pragmatic, language, and literacy impairments were common, and the researchers described some speech impairments as well. Establishing a comprehensive communication profile for this group is important because we’re still learning about Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by one or more extra X chromosomes.

  • Updates on PEERS, a structured social skills program for adolescents and young adults we’ve discussed before! Wyman & Claro used the school-based version of PEERS both with adolescents with ASD (the target audience) and those with intellectual disabilities (ID; an overlooked group in social skills research who may benefit nonetheless). Both groups of students improved their social knowledge, and the ID group (but not the ASD group) increased social interactions with friends outside of school. Meanwhile, Matthews et al. found that speeding up the traditional, clinic-based PEERS program, by offering it in 7 weeks (twice weekly sessions) instead of 14, didn’t reduce its effectiveness.

Accardo, A. L., Finnegan, E. G., Kuder, S. J., & Bomgardner, E. M. (2019). Writing Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Research Synthesis. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 1-19. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03955-9

Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2019). Brief Report: Behavior Disorders and Social Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does IQ Matter? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03954-w

Cerdán, R., Pérez, A., Vidal-Abarca, E., & Rouet, J. F. (2019). To answer questions from text, one has to understand what the question is asking: Differential effects of question aids as a function of comprehension skill. Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-019-09943-w

Curran, M., Walker, E. A., Roush, P., & Spratford, M. (2019). Using Propensity Score Matching to Address Clinical Questions: The Impact of Remote Microphone Systems on Language Outcomes in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-ASTM-18-0238

Facon, B., & Magis, D. (2019). Does the development of syntax comprehension show a premature asymptote among persons with Down Syndrome? A cross-sectional analysis. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-124.2.131

Hu, X., Lee, G. T., Tsai, Y, Yang, Y., & Cai, S. (2019). Comparing computer-assisted and teacher-implemented visual matching instruction for children with ASD and/or other DD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03978-2

Lim, L., Arciuli, J., Munro, N., & Cupples, L. (2019). Using the MULTILIT literacy instruction program with children who have Down syndrome. Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-019-09945-8

Matthews, N. L., Laflin, J., Orr, B. C., Warriner, K., DeCarlo, M., & Smith, C. J. (2019). Brief Report: Effectiveness of an Accelerated Version of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention for Adolescents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03939-9

Muncy, M. P., Yoho, S. E., & McClain, M. B. (2019). Confidence of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists and School Psychologists in Assessing Students With Hearing Loss and Other Co-Occurring Disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-18-0091

Schlosser, R. W., Brock, K. L., Koul, R., Shane, H., & Flynn, S. (2019). Does animation facilitate understanding of graphic symbols representing verbs in children with autism spectrum disorder? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0243

Scott, J. A., & Hansen, S. G. (2019). Comprehending science writing: The promise of dialogic reading for supporting upper elementary deaf students. Communication Disorders Quarterly. doi:10.1177/1525740119838253

St John, M., Ponchard, C., van Reyk, O., Mei, C., Pigdon, L., Amor, D. J., & Morgan, A. T. (2019). Speech and language in children with Klinefelter syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.02.003 

Wyman, J., & Claro, A. (2019). The UCLA PEERS School-Based Program: Treatment Outcomes for Improving Social Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Cognitive Deficits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03943-z

And more

Hwa-Froelich & Matsuo found that children who were adopted internationally had pragmatic skills within the average range, yet their scores were lower than their non-adopted, typically-developing peers. Understanding the language skill profiles of children adopted internationally is important so that we don’t over-refer or misdiagnose these kids. P.S. We’ve reviewed this team’s research with this same population before here.

In the largest study of its kind to date, Potter, Nievergelt, & VanDam found that children with speech sound disorders have similar tongue strength as their typically-developing peers. This study adds to the evidence base that disputes the use of non-speech oral motor exercises in speech therapy.

Rivera Pérez et al. wondered whether monolingual SLPs could use audio prompting (i.e., pre-recorded stimuli in the home language) to facilitate vocabulary learning in Spanish–English bilingual preschoolers with typical language abilities. Children were taught vocabulary in either English only or in both English and audio prompt-delivered Spanish. All children learned English vocabulary, and only the group receiving audio prompting improved on Spanish vocabulary measures, suggesting audio prompting may help improvement in the home language. We should note that their design didn’t compare the English-only and English-plus-audio-prompting conditions and participants were typically developing children taught by SLPs. Still, more research like this could help identify ways SLPs can better serve their bilingual students. Exciting! 

Roberts et al. found positive effects of teaching preschoolers (including some dual language learners) letter name and letter–sound correspondence. No surprise there—we know how important that skill is! It is interesting that they found no advantage for teaching letter names before letter sounds: the jury’s still out on whether one should be taught before the other.

A study by Sue et al. reminds us to consider generalization not only across contexts but across receptive–expressive language modalities. In a single case design on vocabulary training in children with ASD, where children were taught a set of words either receptively or expressively, they found that some but not all of those words taught were acquired in the untrained modality. More expressive-to-receptive transfer was noted—which makes a lot of sense. There are still open questions about the optimal teaching order (if there is one) and what the implications are for dosage.

 

Hwa-Froelich, D. A., & Matsuo, H. (2019). Pragmatic language performance of children adopted internationally. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0075

Potter, N. L., Nievergelt, Y., & VanDam, M. (2019). Tongue strength in children with and without speech sound disorders. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0023

Rivera Pérez, J. F., Creaghead, N. A., Washington, K., Guo, Y., Raisor-Becker, L., & Combs, S. (2019). Using Audio Prompting to Assist Monolingual Speech–Language Pathologists to Teach English–Spanish Vocabulary to English Learners. Communication Disorders Quarterly. doi:10.1177/2F1525740118819659

Roberts, T. A., Vadasy, P. F., & Sanders, E. A. (2019). Preschoolers’ alphabet learning: Cognitive, teaching sequence, and English proficiency influences. Reading Research Quarterly. doi:10.1002/rrq.242

Su, P. L., Castle, G., & Camarata, S. (2019). Cross-modal generalization of receptive and expressive vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism & Developmental Language Impairments. doi:10.1177/2F2396941518824495

And more...

Chester et al. enrolled school-aged children with ASD in group social skills training that included play (unstructured or semi-structured) for 8 weeks. They found that participants gained social skills (as rated by parents, teachers, and the children themselves) compared to waiting controls.  

Conlon et al. looked at narratives (via the ERNNI) produced by 8-year-old boys and girls with ASD and average nonverbal intelligence. While we know that children with ASD often struggle with narratives in general, there may be important gender-related differences. This study found that girls’ stories were more complete, included more information about characters’ intentions, and were easier to follow (i.e. they had better referencing).

Joseph used word boxes (a low-tech method using drawn rectangles and letter tiles) to teach sound segmentation, word identification, and spelling skills to three third graders with autism, and found that all children improved on sound segmentation and word ID and two children improved on spelling. 

Montallana et al. studied inter-rater reliability of the VB-MAPP Milestones and Barriers assessments. The VB-MAPP is commonly used to assess and plan intervention for children with ASD, but we haven’t known much about its psychometrics. While the milestones section had largely moderate to good reliability, agreement between raters on barriers was poor to moderate.  

Thirumanickam et al. found that a video-based modeling intervention was effective in increasing conversational turn-taking in a small number of adolescents with ASD who used AAC—BUT, only when provided with additional instruction (least-to-most prompting). They stated that for students with ASD, some level of prompting is likely required to engage in video-based interventions.

 

Chester, M., Richdale, A. L., & McGillivray, J. (2019). Group-Based Social Skills Training with Play for Children on the Autism Spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03892-7

Conlon, O., Volden, J., Smith, I. M., Duku, E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Waddell, C., … Pathways in ASD Study Team. (2019). Gender Differences in Pragmatic Communication in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-03873-2

Joseph, L. M. (2018). Effects of word boxes on phoneme segmentation, word identification, and spelling for a sample of children with autism. Child Language Teaching and Therapy34(3), 303–317.

Montallana, K. L., Gard, B. M., Lotfizadeh, A. D., & Poling, A. (2019). Inter-Rater Agreement for the Milestones and Barriers Assessments of the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03879-4

Thirumanickam, A., Raghavendra, P., McMillan, J. M., & van Steenbrugge, W. (2018). Effectiveness of video-based modelling to facilitate conversational turn taking of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder who use AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 34(4), 311–322.

Throwback (2017): How oral language fits into the reading puzzle

It can be hard to figure out your role in reading instruction, especially if you work in a school. On the one hand, reading is a huge part of the curriculum and is so important for helping students succeed; on the other, there are already so many professionals targeting reading that it can be hard not to step on anyone’s toes.

Lervåg et al. studied the development of reading comprehension (AKA the ultimate goal of all of this reading instruction) over time, and their results show why oral language is an important part of children’s reading outcomes.

The authors followed the same group of students from age 7 to 13, and gave them a boatload of reading and language tests at 6 points over the 5-year study. (These were Norwegian-speaking children, but results are similar to those from other studies of English-speaking children.) The goal was to test the simple view of reading, which says that reading comprehension depends on:

  1. Decoding—translating written words to sound

  2. Listening comprehension—oral language skills like vocabulary, grammar, etc.

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Their results supported the simple view of reading: decoding and listening comprehension (i.e., grammar, vocabulary, inference, and verbal working memory skills) together explained a whopping 96% of children’s reading comprehension ability. Listening comprehension predicted reading comprehension ability in both older and younger children, while decoding predicted reading comprehension ability only when children struggled with it. Once children’s decoding skills were good enough to read a text, only improvements in listening comprehension mattered for reading comprehension.

Now, does this study show that treating oral language skills improves children’s listening comprehension? No, but other studies do (see the “Summary and Conclusions” section for a review). And remember, you are uniquely qualified to help children improve their listening comprehension skills, which are crucial for reading success—you go, language expert!

 

Lervåg, A. , Hulme, C. and Melby‐Lervåg, M. (2017). Unpicking the developmental relationship between oral language skills and reading comprehension: It's simple, but complex. Child Development. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/cdev.12861

Throwback (2017): A 2-in-1 intervention for reading and vocabulary

So many words in English are spelled irregularly and don’t follow the rules for how they should be sounded out. These are usually taught as “sight words,” but that’s A LOT of memorizing for our clients to do. To give us a hand in teaching irregular words, Dyson et al. tested a treatment based on a theory of reading that says children trying to recall a word’s pronunciation (phonology) can get help from knowing how it is spelled (orthography) or what it means (semantics).  

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The researchers recruited 5–to 7-year-olds whose teachers reported that they struggled with reading. During 20-minute, twice weekly, small-group sessions, children listened to a puppet say an irregular word (e.g., mystery, referee, piano) incorrectly and tried to figure out what it should have said. Then, they listened to definitions of the words and completed a writing worksheet so they could get more practice with spelling them (examples in Appendix B).

After just 8 weeks of treatment, children improved significantly over the control group on: (1) accuracy reading the taught words, (2) accuracy reading a list of similar, untaught words, (3) vocabulary knowledge for taught words, AND (4) vocabulary knowledge for untaught words. If your students struggle with reading irregular words, this treatment might be a great way to target multiple skills at once.

 

Dyson, H., Best, W., Solity, J., & Hulme, C. (2017). Training mispronunciation correction and word meanings improves children’s ability to learn to read words. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(5), 392-407. doi:10.1080/10888438.2017.1315424

Writing and talking to master expository text

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We all access written expository language. Whether it’s a news article, an assessment manual, or this research review, we look to expository text to learn information. For our students with language disorders, though, expository text can be intimidating. Taking high-quality notes and sharing back what they’ve read can improve students’ learning and retention, but many of our students need help with both of these skills!

In this study, fourth through sixth graders* were taught to “write to learn” and “talk to learn” using a procedure called Sketch and Speak, and were then compared to children not receiving the treatment. The intervention directly addressed those pesky note-taking struggles—directly copying text, not organizing it well, or including too much or too little detail. After just six sessions, there were noticeable differences in the students’ oral reports, like more full sentences and opening/closing statements from texts that were not used in treatment. In addition, the school SLPs who treated the students reported increased student confidence, oral fluency, and recall of the texts used in treatment.

Here’s how Sketch and Speak works. Each text was the focus of two, 30-minute therapy sessions, one-on-one or in pairs:

Session 1 (sketched notes → oral sentences → oral report): The SLP read a science article, stopping to let the child sketch important details with “quick and easy, just enough to remember” pictography. The student generated a full sentence in his or her own words for each sketch, then said the sentence again to remember it. Last, the student gave a full oral report based on their note sheet and practiced sentences.

Session 2 (oral report → oral sentences → bulleted notes → oral sentences → oral report): Students gave the same oral report again based on sketched notes. They then took each oral sentence and pared it down to “quick and easy, just enough to remember” phrases, which they wrote in bulleted form before expressing them back as a full oral sentence. Finally, the student gave the report one last time, referencing their bulleted notes and practiced sentences. 

If you’re trying to picture what the student products might look like for each of these steps, check out the supplemental material for examples of student work.

This approach has two pretty exciting things going for it:

  • Room to use our clinical judgment in pacing and scaffolding—because we know our kids and how best to support them! SLPs had the flexibility to use models, feedback, and support based on the student’s need in the moment rather than following a strict protocol. 

  • Manipulating information in a variety of wayswithout ever actually asking the child to write in full sentences—helps students learn useful tools without making the experience dreadful for all involved. Going through so many steps allowed the students supported practice using multiple strategies—in hopes that that they could more successfully access expository text outside of therapy as well. 

*Note that the students in the study had a variety of educational diagnoses: severe learning disability, speech–language impairment, and/or other health impairment (ADHD). Table 2 reports the special education services they received at school.

Ukrainetz, T. A (2018). Sketch and speak: An expository intervention using note-taking and oral practice for children with language-related learning disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-18-0047

Throwback (2013): Phonological awareness: A little goes a long way!

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The authors of this study found that a short and intensive phonological awareness (PA) intervention increased the literacy outcomes of young children with and without language disorder.

The study included a large group of 5-year-olds, some of whom received PA intervention from their teachers, while the rest got “business as usual” reading instruction, which included phonics but not PA. The PA intervention was a classroom-adapted version of the Phonological Awareness Training Program (PAT; Gillon, 2000, 2005), which lasted 10 weeks, with teachers providing four 30-minute sessions per week on the following skills: rhyming, initial phoneme identification, final phoneme identification, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, and sound manipulation.

After the 10 weeks, the children who received the intervention improved more in phoneme awareness, reading, and spelling measures, compared to those receiving their typical reading curriculum. These children also maintained their advantage until the end of the school year (3-6 months later), with higher scores in word decoding and comprehension.

The 7 children with LD in the intervention group showed greater improvements compared to the business-as-usual group, however their improvements differed from their peers without LD who also received the PA intervention. The LD children made larger improvements in early PA skills such as initial phoneme identification, while the non-LD children made larger improvements in reading and spelling measures. The authors make sense of this by stating that children with LD most likely “had more scope for growth in these early PA skills”, however “were less able to transfer their enhanced PA knowledge” compared to children with stronger language abilities.

If working with young students in the early stages of literacy, delivering a shorter period of intensive PA instruction may be the way to go. Let’s be honest—the school days are already jam-packed and we need something manageable to integrate into our day. This study showed that a relatively quick and intensive, teacher-delivered intervention in phonological awareness can have a positive and lasting impact.

Carson, K. L., Gillon, G. T., & Boustead, T. M. (2013). Classroom phonological awareness instruction and literacy outcomes in the first year of school. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 44, 147. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2012/11-0061)

And more...

  • Briley & Ellis found that 52% of children who stutter (CWS; ages 3–17) also had at least one additional developmental disability, compared to just 15% of children who do not stutter (CWNS), per parent report gathered in a large-scale survey. Specifically, CWS had significantly higher odds of having intellectual disability, learning disability, ADHD/ADD, ASD, or another delay than CWNS.

  • Deevy and Leonard found that preschoolers with DLD were less sensitive to number information (i.e. is vs. are) in sentences with fronted auxiliary verbs than younger, typically developing children. “Is the nice little boy running?” is an example of this form (note the auxiliary “is” at the front of the sentence). The authors suggest children with DLD might need explicit instruction to understand tense and agreement markers—in other words, it might not be enough to just practice producing them correctly.

  • Duncan & Lederberg examined the ways that teachers of K–2nd grade deaf/hard of hearing children communicated in the classroom and related it to the students’ language outcomes. They found that explicitly teaching vocabulary predicted improvements in both vocabulary and morphosyntax over the school year, and that reformulating/recasting children’s statements also predicted vocabulary growth.

  • Kelly et al. interviewed teenagers with high-functioning autism, who reported their perceptions of their own social communication skills. They shared individual experiences with challenges with verbal and nonverbal communication, managing challenging feelings during communication with peers, and feelings of isolation and rejection.

  • Mandak et al.* added to the evidence on Transition to Literacy (T2L) features in AAC software with visual scene displays (VSDs). They found that when digital books were programmed with these features—hotspots that, when touched, would speak the target word and display it dynamically—and used in therapy for preschool-aged children with autism, the children made gains in the ability to read targeted sight words.

  • Goodrich et al. administered three subtests of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) to 1,221 preschool children, including 751 who were Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Despite the TOPEL being written in English, they found that it provided reliable and valid measures of Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ early literacy skills in English.

*Disclosure: Kelsey Mandak is a writer for The Informed SLP. She was not involved in the selection or review of this article.  

Briley, P. M., & Ellis, C., Jr. (2018). The Coexistence of Disabling Conditions in Children Who Stutter: Evidence From the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0378

Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. (2018). Sensitivity to morphosyntactic information in preschool children with and without developmental language disorder: A follow-up study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0038

Duncan, M. K., & Lederberg, A. R. (2018). Relations Between Teacher Talk Characteristics and Child Language in Spoken-Language Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Classrooms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0475

Goodrich, J. M., Lonigan, C. J., & Alfonso, S. V. (2019). Measurement of early literacy skills among monolingual English-speaking and Spanish-speaking language-minority children: A differential item functioning analysis. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.10.007

Kelly, R., O’Malley, M., Antonijevic, S. (2018). ‘Just trying to talk to people… it’s the hardest’: Perspectives of adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder on their social communication skills. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. doi:10.1177/0265659018806754

Mandak, K., Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (2018). Digital Books with Dynamic Text and Speech Output: Effects on Sight Word Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3817-1