A lot of what we know about evidence-based practice is how things work (or don’t) in general, for groups of similar clients, on average. But as we’ve all seen, even the best approaches don’t work for everyone, or don’t work to the same degree, at the same speed, or in exactly the same way in every case. Knowing how to factor individual differences into our assessment and intervention process is a huge research question (or ten thousand small ones), and it’ll take time for our field to get there. This new study is one link in that chain, addressing how self-regulation abilities relate to therapy outcomes and duration for young children who stutter.
Children who stutter often struggle with self-regulation, in a similar way to kids with ADHD. (We mentioned a study last month that addressed the importance of “effortful control” in predicting stuttering severity.) Basically, self-regulation is the ability to control your reactions (emotions AND behaviors) to changes in your environment. Kids who have a hard time self-regulating will have really big emotions, both positive and negative, and struggle to calm down when they're upset or excited. They'll also have more trouble focusing and shifting attention than other kids. Here, Druker et al. looked at 185 children between 2 and 6 years old, all of whom had been discharged or discontinued from stuttering therapy within the last three months. About half of these kids displayed “elevated” ADHD symptoms (subclinical, so not actually receiving a diagnosis), as determined by a parent-report measure. Refer back to the article for more details on how this was measured.
Now that in itself is worth knowing, but even more useful is this: the children with more ADHD symptoms needed about 24% more time in therapy (here corresponding to about 3 sessions), to meet the criteria for discharge. If you know right off the bat that your new little client struggles with attention and self-regulation (consider adding a questionnaire to your evaluation protocol or intake process so you know this!), you can take that into account in your treatment plan and expectations for progress.
What other implications do we see for practice? The authors suggest—just like the authors from the piece last month—that SLPs directly address self-regulation skills within fluency therapy. We can’t say from the current research how to do that, or how it might affect outcomes, but it’s a logical step to consider.