And more...

Recently, we reviewed a study showing that young children with less-developed self-regulation skills needed more time in fluency therapy, and the authors recommended addressing self-regulation concurrently with fluency. But how do you do that? Druker et al. (the team behind that other study) are back with one possible way: training parents to deliver intervention in resilience. Children whose parents received this training reduced emotional and behavioral issues compared to a group who only received fluency therapy. Check out the appendices for examples of the resilience-boosting activities parents were trained to use.  

Ebert et al. studied the relationships among bilingualism, developmental language disorder (DLD), and attention. They found that bilingualism was not related to improved attention (so, no evidence for a hypothesized “bilingual cognitive advantage”), but that DLD was associated with poorer attention skills in both mono- and bilingual children.

Gremp et al. found that children who are DHH have difficulty with nameable visual sequencing tasks (think: the circle handheld Simon game that lights up) compared to hearing peers, which positively predicted receptive vocabulary scores. This highlights the difficulty with both sequencing and describing abstract concepts often experienced by this population. Keep in mind that these were DHH children in primarily spoken English environments, with little-to-no ASL access. The discussion section dives into a deeper discussion of possible causes of these deficits.

Herman et al. examined the literacy skills of oral deaf (OD) children and compared them with another group known to struggle with reading—hearing children with dyslexia. In both groups, letter sound knowledge, phonological skills, and rapid automatic naming abilities were helpful measures for identifying poor readers. Compared with the hearing group, OD children’s skills in phoneme deletion and vocabulary were lower, and also useful for predicting literacy outcomes. The authors discuss implications for literacy assessment and intervention, so check out the full article if you work with this population.

Hessling & Brimo studied the micro- and macrostructure of narrative retells produced by children with Down Syndrome. They describe general patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the children, and found that narrative measures were correlated with both word-level reading and reading comprehension skills. They recommend narrative analysis as a useful assessment and intervention-planning tool for this population.

Nonword repetition is thought to be a non-biased task with high clinical utility for diagnosing language disorders. But if you’re using this task to assess speakers of non-mainstream dialects, McDonald & Oetting suggest you measure the density of non-mainstream forms (through language sampling, an assessment like the DELV, or listener judgments) as part of your assessment, because their new study shows that dialect density can affect nonword repetition scores.

Robinson & Norton examined US national data from 2004–2014 and determined that black American students were disproportionately classified as speech or language impaired in three-quarters of the states. In most cases, these students were over-represented, but some states (those with a larger density of black residents) were likely to under-represent.

 

Druker, K. C., Mazzucchelli, T. G., & Beilby, J. M. (2019). An evaluation of an integrated fluency and resilience program for early developmental stuttering disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.02.002

Ebert, K. D., Rak, D., Slawny, C. M., & Fogg, L. (2019). Attention in Bilingual Children With Developmental Language Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0221

Gremp, M. A., Deocampo, J. A., Walk, A. M., & Conway, C. M. (2019). Visual sequential processing and language ability in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Journal of Child Language. doi:10.1017/s0305000918000569

Herman, R., E. Kyle, F., & Roy, P. (2019). Literacy and Phonological Skills in Oral Deaf Children and Hearing Children With a History of Dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly. doi:10.1002/rrq.244

Hessling, A., & Brimo, D. M. (2019). Spoken fictional narrative and literacy skills of children with Down syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.03.005

McDonald, J. L., & Oetting, J. B. (2019). Nonword Repetition Across Two Dialects of English: Effects of Specific Language Impairment and Nonmainstream Form Density. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0253

Robinson, G. C., & Norton, P. C. (2019). A Decade of Disproportionality: A State-Level Analysis of African American Students Enrolled in the Primary Disability Category of Speech or Language Impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0149

Who needs extra time in fluency therapy?

A lot of what we know about evidence-based practice is how things work (or don’t) in general, for groups of similar clients, on average. But as we’ve all seen, even the best approaches don’t work for everyone, or don’t work to the same degree, at the same speed, or in exactly the same way in every case. Knowing how to factor individual differences into our assessment and intervention process is a huge research question (or ten thousand small ones), and it’ll take time for our field to get there. This new study is one link in that chain, addressing how self-regulation abilities relate to therapy outcomes and duration for young children who stutter.

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Children who stutter often struggle with self-regulation, in a similar way to kids with ADHD. (We mentioned a study last month that addressed the importance of “effortful control” in predicting stuttering severity.) Basically, self-regulation is the ability to control your reactions (emotions AND behaviors) to changes in your environment. Kids who have a hard time self-regulating will have really big emotions, both positive and negative, and struggle to calm down when they're upset or excited. They'll also have more trouble focusing and shifting attention than other kids. Here, Druker et al. looked at 185 children between 2 and 6 years old, all of whom had been discharged or discontinued from stuttering therapy within the last three months. About half of these kids displayed “elevated” ADHD symptoms (subclinical, so not actually receiving a diagnosis), as determined by a parent-report measure. Refer back to the article for more details on how this was measured.

Now that in itself is worth knowing, but even more useful is this: the children with more ADHD symptoms needed about 24% more time in therapy (here corresponding to about 3 sessions), to meet the criteria for discharge. If you know right off the bat that your new little client struggles with attention and self-regulation (consider adding a questionnaire to your evaluation protocol or intake process so you know this!), you can take that into account in your treatment plan and expectations for progress.

What other implications do we see for practice? The authors suggestjust like the authors from the piece last month—that SLPs directly address self-regulation skills within fluency therapy. We can’t say from the current research how to do that, or how it might affect outcomes, but it’s a logical step to consider.

 

Druker, K., Hennessey, N., Mazzucchelli, T., & Beilby, J. (2019). Elevated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 59, 80–90.

And more...

Baylis and Shriberg found that 14 of 17 children (82.4%) with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (aka DiGeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome) had comorbid motor speech disorders. Speech motor delay and childhood dysarthria were more common than CAS. These initial prevalence estimates add to a growing body of evidence that helps us better understand the profile of 22q syndrome.

Glover et al. found that young children (preschool through 3rd grade) had more negative attitudes toward stuttering than their parents. By 5th grade, those attitudes improved and were similar to attitudes of parents.

Hammarström et al. found that an intense treatment (4 sessions per week for 6 weeks) was effective for a 4 year old, Swedish-speaking child with a severe speech sound disorder. Treatment incorporated multiple approaches—integral stimulation, nonlinear phonology, and a core vocabulary approach. After therapy, the child produced more target words, word shapes, and consonants correctly.

Kraft et al. replicated an earlier study to find that effortful control (an aspect of temperament) was the most important factor predicting stuttering severity in children. They recommend addressing self-regulation as part of the holistic treatment of stuttering.

Lancaster and Camarata set out to explain the heterogeneity of language skills in kids with DLD. At this time, it’s looking like a spectrum model (think autism!) fits best, versus labeling kids by subtypes or chalking up the differences to unique, individual profiles; but lots more data is needed. For now, the evidence suggests we should assess and treat kids with DLD based on level of severity *and* individual needs—which is probably what you’re doing already. 

Lane et al. profiled the communication skills of children with Sotos Syndrome using a parent-report measure. They found that most of the children had a language impairment (with issues in both structure and pragmatics), with a relative strength in verbal vs. nonverbal communication and a weakness in using context. These children are likely to need support in peer relationships, too. 

Sutherland et al. found that a standardized language test (the CELF-4) can be reliably administered via telehealth to children with autism. The specific children they tested were between 9 and 12 years old and mostly mainstreamed.

 

Baylis, A. L., & Shriberg, L. D. (2018). Estimates of the prevalence of speech and motor speech disorders in youth with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0037

Glover, H. L., St Louis, K. O., & Weidner, M. E. (2018). Comparing stuttering attitudes of preschool through 5th grade children and their parents in a predominately rural Appalachian sample. Journal of Fluency Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.jfludis.2018.11.001

Hammarström, I. L., Svensson, R., & Myrberg, K. (2018). A shift of treatment approach in speech language pathology services for children with speech sound disorders – a single case study of an intense intervention based on non-linear phonology and motor-learning principles. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/02699206.2018.1552990 

Kraft, S. J., Lowther, E., & Beilby, J. (2018). The Role of Effortful Control in Stuttering Severity in Children: Replication Study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0097

Lancaster, H. S., & Camarata, S. (2018). Reconceptualizing developmental language disorder as a spectrum disorder: Issues and evidence. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12433

Lane, C., Van Herwegen, J., & Freeth, M. (2018). Parent-Reported Communication Abilities of Children with Sotos Syndrome: Evidence from the Children’s Communication Checklist-2. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3842-0

Sutherland, R., Trembath, D., Hodge, M. A., Rose, V., & Roberts, J. (2018). Telehealth and autism: Are telehealth language assessments reliable and feasible for children with autism? International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12440

And more...

  • Briley & Ellis found that 52% of children who stutter (CWS; ages 3–17) also had at least one additional developmental disability, compared to just 15% of children who do not stutter (CWNS), per parent report gathered in a large-scale survey. Specifically, CWS had significantly higher odds of having intellectual disability, learning disability, ADHD/ADD, ASD, or another delay than CWNS.

  • Deevy and Leonard found that preschoolers with DLD were less sensitive to number information (i.e. is vs. are) in sentences with fronted auxiliary verbs than younger, typically developing children. “Is the nice little boy running?” is an example of this form (note the auxiliary “is” at the front of the sentence). The authors suggest children with DLD might need explicit instruction to understand tense and agreement markers—in other words, it might not be enough to just practice producing them correctly.

  • Duncan & Lederberg examined the ways that teachers of K–2nd grade deaf/hard of hearing children communicated in the classroom and related it to the students’ language outcomes. They found that explicitly teaching vocabulary predicted improvements in both vocabulary and morphosyntax over the school year, and that reformulating/recasting children’s statements also predicted vocabulary growth.

  • Kelly et al. interviewed teenagers with high-functioning autism, who reported their perceptions of their own social communication skills. They shared individual experiences with challenges with verbal and nonverbal communication, managing challenging feelings during communication with peers, and feelings of isolation and rejection.

  • Mandak et al.* added to the evidence on Transition to Literacy (T2L) features in AAC software with visual scene displays (VSDs). They found that when digital books were programmed with these features—hotspots that, when touched, would speak the target word and display it dynamically—and used in therapy for preschool-aged children with autism, the children made gains in the ability to read targeted sight words.

  • Goodrich et al. administered three subtests of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) to 1,221 preschool children, including 751 who were Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Despite the TOPEL being written in English, they found that it provided reliable and valid measures of Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ early literacy skills in English.

*Disclosure: Kelsey Mandak is a writer for The Informed SLP. She was not involved in the selection or review of this article.  

Briley, P. M., & Ellis, C., Jr. (2018). The Coexistence of Disabling Conditions in Children Who Stutter: Evidence From the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0378

Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. (2018). Sensitivity to morphosyntactic information in preschool children with and without developmental language disorder: A follow-up study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0038

Duncan, M. K., & Lederberg, A. R. (2018). Relations Between Teacher Talk Characteristics and Child Language in Spoken-Language Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Classrooms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0475

Goodrich, J. M., Lonigan, C. J., & Alfonso, S. V. (2019). Measurement of early literacy skills among monolingual English-speaking and Spanish-speaking language-minority children: A differential item functioning analysis. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.10.007

Kelly, R., O’Malley, M., Antonijevic, S. (2018). ‘Just trying to talk to people… it’s the hardest’: Perspectives of adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder on their social communication skills. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. doi:10.1177/0265659018806754

Mandak, K., Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (2018). Digital Books with Dynamic Text and Speech Output: Effects on Sight Word Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3817-1

Throwback (2014): Help with the tricky business of diagnosing stuttering in preschoolers

Picture this: a parent asks you about her preschooler’s speech. She’s concerned that he might be stuttering. “How can I tell if it’s normal or not?” she asks.

Is your heart racing just thinking about this question? Preschool stuttering can be a big ol’ gray area; it’s hard to tell when normal disfluencies cross the line into developmental stuttering. Luckily, Tumanova et al. have some evidence-based answers for us.

The authors tested a big group of preschoolers (2.5- to 5-year-olds) and classified them as children who stutter or who do not stutter using a cutoff of 3% stuttered words from a 300-word speech sample and a score of 11 or greater on the Stuttering Severity Instrument–3. Then, they looked at how well the other factors they measured classified children into one group or the other. Remember that we evaluate diagnostic accuracy by considering sensitivity (how often the test correctly identifies a disorder) and specificity (how often the test correctly identifies typical development); both should be 80% or higher

Two measures stood out as having good diagnostic accuracy. First, percent total disfluencies—a combination of both stuttered disfluencies (e.g., prolongations, sound repetitions) and non-stuttered disfluencies (e.g., phrase repetitions, interjections)—had fair sensitivity (82%) and specificity (95%) at the cutoff of 8% disfluencies (the authors used a 300-word sample, but there is no standard recommended sample length; longer is better, and having two samples instead of one would also be better). Next, whether or not parents were concerned about their children’s stuttering had fair sensitivity (80%) and good specificity (92%) when compared to a cutoff of 3% stuttered disfluencies, “suggesting that the 3% criterion has a strong and clinically meaningful association with parental concern.” Also, boys had more non-stuttered (normal) disfluencies than girls; other factors (language ability, age) were related to how many normal disfluencies children produced, but the differences were small. 

So 3% stuttered disfluencies is still our go-to for diagnosing stuttering in preschoolers, but we can supplement that by looking at (1) percent non-stuttered (normal) disfluencies and (2) whether parents report concerns about their child’s stuttering.

 

Tumanova, V., Conture, E. G., Lambert, E. W., & Walden, T. A. (2014). Speech disfluencies of preschool-age children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 49, 25-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2014.01.003

And more...

Brinton et al. found that five elementary-age children with DLD rarely described characters’ mental states (responses, plans, emotions) when generating stories and struggled to answer direct questions about characters’ mental states. The authors suggest that children with DLD may have difficulty with social and emotional concepts. 

Chenausky et al. found that baseline phonetic inventory and ADOS scores were most predictive of speech target approximations post-speech therapy in minimally verbal children with autism (more than IQ, language, age). And that’s not terribly surprising (except the age part—cool that they made good speech gains in older elementary children!). Perhaps the more interesting thing about this study, though, is what they did in speech therapy. It’s called “auditory motor map training”, and is basically the addition of rhythm (tapping drums) and intonation (singing the speech targets) to speech therapy. The researchers are finding that adding these tactile and auditory cues is better than not having them; so worth trying! 

Cooke and Millard asked school-aged children who stutter what they considered to be the most important therapy outcomes. The children reported increased fluency, independence, and confidence, as well as others knowing how to support them and how to make communication situations feel easier. This study serves as a good reminder that stuttering is more than dysfluent speech. The cognitive (thoughts and attitudes) and affective (feelings) components should also play a role in how we evaluate therapy outcomes.  

Dyson et al. taught 20 vocabulary words to elementary-age children with low vocabulary scores using examples, games, and worksheets. After 10 weeks of 20-minute small-group sessions, children learned five new words on average; significantly more than children in a control group. (Email the authors for free materials!)

Giusto and Ehri found that third-graders with poor decoding and average listening comprehension benefitted from a partial-read aloud test accommodation with pacing (PRAP). When examiners read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and multiple choice questions, the students improved their reading comprehension of the test passages. Although you may not be directly assessing these students, these findings may be helpful if you’re ever in the position to recommend accommodations for this subset of children.

Gough Kenyon et al. found that, compared to typical peers, 10- to 11-year-olds with developmental language disorder (DLD) struggled with making elaborative inferences (drawing on background knowledge not stated) but not cohesive inferences (linking information given) after reading a passage. They suggest targeting elaborative inferencing to boost reading comprehension for children with DLD.

Millard et al. add to the evidence base for Palin Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for young children who stutter, finding a reduction in stuttering severity and improvements in both parent and child attitudes and confidence following a year of participation in the program.

Sabri & Fabiano-Smith analyzed a case study and found that, given early implantation and support in both languages, a bilingual child with cochlear implants can acquire two phonological systems, although likely at a slower rate than other bilingual children.

Using (and maybe struggling with) the Lidcombe Program with your young clients who stutter? Van Eerdenbrugh et al. studied the challenges clinicians have with implementing the program and surveyed experts to come up with solutions.

 

Brinton, B., Fujiki, M., & Asai, N. (2018). The ability of five children with developmental language disorder to describe mental states in stories. Communication Disorders Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1525740118779767.

Chenausky, K., Norton, A., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Schlaug, G. (2018). Behavioral predictors of improved speech output in minimally verbal children with autism. Autism Research. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1002/aur.2006.

Cooke, K., & Millard, S. K. (2018). The most important therapy outcomes for school-aged children who stutter: An exploratory study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1152.

Dyson, H. , Solity, J. , Best, W. and Hulme, C. (2018), Effectiveness of a small‐group vocabulary intervention programme: evidence from a regression discontinuity design. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 53: 947-958. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12404

Giusto, M., & Ehri, L. C. (2018). Effectiveness of a partial read-aloud test accommodation to assess reading comprehension in students with a reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0022219418789377

Gough Kenyon, S. M., Palikara, O., & Lucas, R. M. (2018). Explaining reading comprehension in children with developmental language disorder: The importance of elaborative inferencing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(10), 2517–2531. 

Millard, S. K., Zebrowski, P., & Kelman, E. (2018). Palin Parent–Child Interaction Therapy: The Bigger Picture. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1211–1223.

Sabri, M. & Fabiano-Smith, L. (2018). Phonological Development in a Bilingual Arabic–English-Speaking Child With Bilateral Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Case Study. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0162.

Van Eerdenbrugh, S., Packman, A., O'Brian, S., & Onslow, M. (2018). Challenges and Strategies for Speech-Language Pathologists Using the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1259–1272.

And more...

In case you were wondering, the theme of the month is: OMG how were there so many studies published this month?!

  • In a study of over 1200 families in poor rural regions, Burchinal et al. confirmed the presence of a large gap in school readiness skills among low SES children that emerges during the first five years of life. Specifically, children who experienced poverty before the age of two had more significant delays on their language, cognitive, social, and executive functioning skills by 2–3 years of age. Self-regulation and executive functioning skills played an important role in school readiness at age 5. Check out the original article for a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between poverty & school readiness.

  • Byrd et al. found that a 5-day intensive camp program that focused on social-emotional topics and desensitization toward stuttering (and NOT on increasing fluency), improved the attitudes of school-age children who stutter toward communication and their perceived ability to make friends.

  • Diepeveen et al. provided data to support the growing body of evidence that suggests that children with DLD (and cognitive scores within normal limits, so SLI) also frequently exhibit motor deficits. The motor skills of two groups of 253 four-to-eleven-year-olds—half with, and half without SLI—were evaluated. Results suggested that the SLI group demonstrated delays in three of the seven motor milestones, with particular deficits noted in fine motor development.

  • Denmark et al. found that deaf children with ASD produced fewer facial actions (such as widening eyes or furrowing/raising eyebrows intensely) needed to produce emotion signs like “demand” and “mischief” when retelling a story, compared to their typically-developing deaf peers. The study addresses the research gap related to how emotion processing and theory of mind affect this population’s ability to use facial actions when signing. 

  • Finestack & Satterlund surveyed over 300 pediatric SLPs about their typical grammar interventions. SLPs reported using evidence-based procedures such as modeling, recasting, requesting imitation, and explicit instruction. Their progress monitoring was evidence based as well, consisting of observation and language sampling. Many SLPs reported using TTR (type-token ratio) to measure progress, which is not evidence based and has been found to be ineffective. More research is needed to determine which goal attack strategies (the sequence in which you address goals) are evidence-based.

  • Lim and Charlop found that speaking a child’s heritage language during play-based intervention sessions seemed to help four bilingual children with ASD play in more functional and interactive ways. The experimenters followed scripts for giving play instructions, verbal praise, and making comments related to play in both English and each child’s heritage language (in this study, Korean or Spanish). None of the children played functionally or interactively before the intervention, but all of the children showed an increase in play during and after intervention sessions in both English and the heritage language, with more impressive gains seen in heritage language sessions. More research is needed, but SLPs should keep this in mind when working with bilingual children with ASD. 

  • If you’ve been wondering if standardized language assessments would ever transition to iPads, we may be heading that way. Marble-Flint et al. found that for children with ASD, there was no significant difference in performance between iPad and typical paper tests for the PPVT. This was true as long as the iPad format did not have any interactive features (sounds effects, visuals). 

  • Children who receive cochlear implants (CIs) often have morphosyntactic and vocabulary skills are somewhat delayed, but their phonological awareness skills are often significantly delayed. In a longitudinal study, Nittrouer et al. found that this pattern persists until at least 6th grade. Two intervention methods significantly predicted better language outcomes: bimodal stimulation and literacy acquisition/instruction.  

  • Swaminathan & Farquharson asked 575 school-based SLPs whether they used an RTI (“Response to Intervention”) model with children with speech sounds disorders (SSD). SLPs with smaller caseloads were more likely to use RTI, even though those with larger caseloads could potentially benefit the most from the model. They also found a lot of inconsistency in how RTI was interpreted and used. If you’re questioning using this model, the article does a nice job of RTI applied to SSD! 

  • van den Bedem et al. found that children with developmental language disorder are at high risk for depressive symptoms. The worse the child’s communication skills, the more inclined the child was to use maladaptive strategies. On a positive note, children with DLD respond just as well to emotion regulation strategies as children without DLD. Learning and utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies with our kids with DLD could help them cope with their everyday stress.

  • Vessoyan et al. analyzed case studies of four girls with Rett Syndrome (9–15 years old) who used eye-tracking technology to communicate. In all cases, the technology (with ongoing support) helped the girls work toward their individual communication goals, and parents reported both psychosocial benefits and satisfaction with the technology and services.

  • Werfel found that preschoolers with hearing loss 1) had lower MLUm and 2) were less accurate in using Brown’s morphemes when compared to age-matched peers with normal hearing. The author suggests monitoring the morphosyntax development of preschool children with hearing loss.

  

Burchinal, M., Carr, R.C., Vernon-Feagans, L.V., Blair, C., Cox, M. (2018). Depth, persistence, and timing of poverty and the development of school readiness skills in rural low-income regions: Results from the family life project. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 45, 115–130.

Byrd, C. T., Gkalitsiou, Z., Werle, D., & Coalson, G. A. (2018). Exploring the Effectiveness of an Intensive Treatment Program for School-Age Children Who Stutter, Camp Dream. Speak. Live.: A Follow-up Study. Seminars in Speech and Language. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1670669

Diepeveen, F. B., van Dommelen, P., Oudesluys-Murphy, A., & Verkerk, P. (2018). Children with specific language impairment are more likely to reach motor milestones late. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 44(6), 857–862. 

Denmark, T., Atkinson, J., Campbell, R., & Swettenham, J. (2018). Signing with the face: Emotional expression in narrative production in deaf children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3756-x

Finestack, L.H., & Satterlund, K.E. (2018). Current practice of child grammar intervention: A survey of speech-language pathologists. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0168

Lim, N. & Charlop, M. H. (2018). Effects of English versus heritage language on play in bilingually exposed children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral Interventions. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/bin.1644

Marble-Flint, K.J., Strattman, K.H., & Schommer-Aikins, M.A. (2018). Comparing iPad and paper assessments for children with ASD: An initial study. Communication Disorders Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi: 10.3109/07434618.2011.644579.

Nittrouer, S., Miur, M., Tietgens, K., Moberly, A.C., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2018). Development of phonological, lexical, and syntactic abilities in children with cochlear implants across the elementary grades. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-18-0047.

Swaminathan, D., & Farquharson, K. (2018). Using Response to Intervention for Speech Sound Disorders: Exploring Practice Characteristics and Geographical Differences. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 3(SIG 16), 53–66.

van den Bedem, N. P., Dockrell, J.E., van Alphen, P.M., de Rooji, M., Samson, A.C., Harjunen, E.L., & Rieffe, C. (2018). Depressive symptoms and emotion regulation strategies in children with and without developmental language disorder: a longitudinal study. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12423.

Vessoyan, K., Steckle, G., Easton, B., Nichols, M., Mok Siu, V., & McDougall, J. (2018). Using eye-tracking technology for communication in Rett syndrome: perceptions of impact. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/07434618.2018.1462848.

Werfel, K. L. (2018). Morphosyntax production of preschool children with hearing loss: An evaluation of the extended optional infinitive and surface accounts. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61, 2313–2324.

And more...

  • Boyd et al. found that the advancing social communication and play (ASAP) intervention did not significantly impact the social-communication and play skills of preschoolers with ASD, but it did increase the amount the children engaged in normal classroom routines. 
  • Goodrich & Lonigan tracked Spanish–English bilingual children’s vocabulary skills over time. They found that children had higher Spanish vocab knowledge when they started preschool, but after a year their English vocab knowledge was higher. Conceptual scoring boosted children’s scores at school entry but was less important as the children were exposed to more English.
  • Gresch et al. found that scores on a nonword repetition task (“This is my friend Jot. Can you say Jot?”) at 36 months helped predict language abilities at 4.5 years for children born preterm and full term. They also noticed that whether the 3-year-olds were able to participate in the nonword repetition task at all helped predict future language problems (and children born preterm were less likely to be able to do so).
  • McCarthy et al., replicating previous work, found that children (aged 4–12) both with ASD and with typical development drew entire scenes and complete representations of people and objects when asked to draw early concepts (“eat” or “all gone”) and were only able to accurately identify about 25% of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS). They discuss implications for intervention planning, including the importance of considering a child's perspective and preferences, as well as symbol sets that are responsive to a child's communication needs.
  • Nippold reviewed recent research that indicates children who stutter do not have weaker language skills when compared to children who do not stutter. This finding was consistent with two previous reviews by the same author.

 

Boyd, B. A., Watson, L. R., Reszka, S. S., Sideris, J., Alessandri, M., Baranek, G. T., … Belardi, K. (2018). Efficacy of the ASAP intervention for preschoolers with ASD: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3584-z

Goodrich, J. M., & Lonigan, C. J. (2018). Development of first- and second-language vocabulary knowledge among language-minority children: Evidence from single language and conceptual scores. Journal of Child Language. Advance online publication. doi:10.1017/S0305000917000538

Gresch, L. D., Marchman, V. A., Loi, E. C., Fernald, A., & Feldman, H. M. (2018). Nonword Repetition and Language Outcomes in Young Children Born Preterm. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(5), 1203–1215.

McCarthy, J. W., Benigno, J. P., Broach, J., Boster, J. B., & Wright, B. M. (2018). Identification and drawing of early concepts in children with autism spectrum disorder and children without disability. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 34, 155–165.

Nippold, M. (2018). Language development in children who stutter: A review of recent research. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/17549507.2018.1457721

Treating preschoolers for fluency? Here’s how your life can be easier

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Last month we shared research showing that parent ratings of stuttering severity were related to results on the Test of Childhood Stuttering. Now, these researchers out of Australia (home of the Lidcombe Program), analyzed data from three previous randomized controlled trials of that intervention with an eye to the outcome measures. They found that there was no statistical reason to favor” the gold-standard Percent Syllables Stuttered (PSS) over a much easier, much faster parent-reported severity rating, on a scale of 1 (no stuttering) to 10 (extremely severe stuttering), as observed over the previous week. Not only were the ratings much simpler to collect for the preschool population studied, they have the advantage of capturing the whole week vs. one quick sample. Now, the paper specifically suggests that other researchers use the ratings over PSS as a way to make stuttering intervention research easier to do, but if anyone needs a faster outcome measure, it’s practicing clinicians, amiright? Depending on where you work, you may be required to use PSS to qualify kids for services, but these findings could come in handy when special circumstances require you to “override” the eligibility criteria. You can also use severity ratings to track progress, and save a LOT of time over counting syllables.

Note that for children with fairly mild stuttering, neither measure shows progress all that well. From 3% to 2% syllables stuttered, or a parent waffling between a rating of “1” and “2”... you may have to get creative to show the results of treatment. For kids with more severe stuttering, either measure works well. Don’t use them interchangeably, though—pick a method and stick with it.

Onslow, M., Jones, M., O’Brian, S., Packman, A., Menzies, R., Lowe, R., … Franken, M.C. (2018). Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0448.