“I wish…I think…I wonder…”: Improving parents’ shared book readings

Shared book reading can be a sweet moment between parent and child—while also serving to improve a child’s literacy skills. The trick is figuring out how to help parents make the most of these interactions. This pilot study examined the effects of a short training on parent–child storybook readings. While this study focused on Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing preschoolers, most outcomes focused on the changes in the parents’ skills—meaning you can apply this across many populations.

Researchers recorded multiple shared book readings at each of three stages in the experiment: before training parents, in the “intervention period” (the two weeks following the parent training), and eight weeks after training. The training was only twenty minutes long (very do-able for real world clinicians!) and included a very short power point, a two-minute video model, and discussion with the parents. The authors focused on these topics for parent training:

  • Switching mindset from “education” to gaining insight into the child’s thoughts

  • No such thing as right or wrong

  • Increasing use of wait time

  • Increasing conversational turns

  • Making phonemic awareness fun and silly (like making up nonsense words by taking words in the text and changing one phoneme)

  • Using open ended prompts: “I wish…”  “I think…” “I wonder…” “What do you think?”

Parents were also given two booklets from the National Institute for Literacy and a few wordless picture books to add to their home collection.

When measuring parent interaction types, the authors split prompts into two categories:

Open-Ended Prompts

Questions that encourage open-ended discussion: “What do you think…

Indirect prompts such as “I think…” or “I hope…” paired with wait time

Closed-Ended or Right/Wrong Prompts

WH questions about the story text: “What is that?” “Where is her bone?

Questions about the story text that encourage one word answers

Yes/no questions or “how many” questions

For only spending twenty minutes on parent training, researchers saw some encouraging changes! Both the total number of parent–child exchanges and the percentage of open-ended prompts increased from baseline, through the intervention and retention stages. The percentage of words spoken by the child was also higher in the intervention and retention stages (though only the intervention stage showed a statistically significant difference from baseline levels). Because a dip was shown in all outcomes during the retention stage, eight weeks after training, it looks like clinicians will probably need to follow-up with parents periodically.

For more along these lines, check out our reviews about supporting parents to complete literacy programs, teaching vocabulary via shared readings, and improving the narrative comprehension of children with ASD.

Nelson, L. H., Stoddard, S. M., Fryer, S. L., & Muñoz, K. (2019). Increasing Engagement of Children Who Are DHH During Parent–Child Storybook Reading. Communication Disorders Quarterly. doi:10.1177/1525740118819662

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Recently, we reviewed a study showing that young children with less-developed self-regulation skills needed more time in fluency therapy, and the authors recommended addressing self-regulation concurrently with fluency. But how do you do that? Druker et al. (the team behind that other study) are back with one possible way: training parents to deliver intervention in resilience. Children whose parents received this training reduced emotional and behavioral issues compared to a group who only received fluency therapy. Check out the appendices for examples of the resilience-boosting activities parents were trained to use.  

Ebert et al. studied the relationships among bilingualism, developmental language disorder (DLD), and attention. They found that bilingualism was not related to improved attention (so, no evidence for a hypothesized “bilingual cognitive advantage”), but that DLD was associated with poorer attention skills in both mono- and bilingual children.

Gremp et al. found that children who are DHH have difficulty with nameable visual sequencing tasks (think: the circle handheld Simon game that lights up) compared to hearing peers, which positively predicted receptive vocabulary scores. This highlights the difficulty with both sequencing and describing abstract concepts often experienced by this population. Keep in mind that these were DHH children in primarily spoken English environments, with little-to-no ASL access. The discussion section dives into a deeper discussion of possible causes of these deficits.

Herman et al. examined the literacy skills of oral deaf (OD) children and compared them with another group known to struggle with reading—hearing children with dyslexia. In both groups, letter sound knowledge, phonological skills, and rapid automatic naming abilities were helpful measures for identifying poor readers. Compared with the hearing group, OD children’s skills in phoneme deletion and vocabulary were lower, and also useful for predicting literacy outcomes. The authors discuss implications for literacy assessment and intervention, so check out the full article if you work with this population.

Hessling & Brimo studied the micro- and macrostructure of narrative retells produced by children with Down Syndrome. They describe general patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the children, and found that narrative measures were correlated with both word-level reading and reading comprehension skills. They recommend narrative analysis as a useful assessment and intervention-planning tool for this population.

Nonword repetition is thought to be a non-biased task with high clinical utility for diagnosing language disorders. But if you’re using this task to assess speakers of non-mainstream dialects, McDonald & Oetting suggest you measure the density of non-mainstream forms (through language sampling, an assessment like the DELV, or listener judgments) as part of your assessment, because their new study shows that dialect density can affect nonword repetition scores.

Robinson & Norton examined US national data from 2004–2014 and determined that black American students were disproportionately classified as speech or language impaired in three-quarters of the states. In most cases, these students were over-represented, but some states (those with a larger density of black residents) were likely to under-represent.

 

Druker, K. C., Mazzucchelli, T. G., & Beilby, J. M. (2019). An evaluation of an integrated fluency and resilience program for early developmental stuttering disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.02.002

Ebert, K. D., Rak, D., Slawny, C. M., & Fogg, L. (2019). Attention in Bilingual Children With Developmental Language Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0221

Gremp, M. A., Deocampo, J. A., Walk, A. M., & Conway, C. M. (2019). Visual sequential processing and language ability in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Journal of Child Language. doi:10.1017/s0305000918000569

Herman, R., E. Kyle, F., & Roy, P. (2019). Literacy and Phonological Skills in Oral Deaf Children and Hearing Children With a History of Dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly. doi:10.1002/rrq.244

Hessling, A., & Brimo, D. M. (2019). Spoken fictional narrative and literacy skills of children with Down syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.03.005

McDonald, J. L., & Oetting, J. B. (2019). Nonword Repetition Across Two Dialects of English: Effects of Specific Language Impairment and Nonmainstream Form Density. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0253

Robinson, G. C., & Norton, P. C. (2019). A Decade of Disproportionality: A State-Level Analysis of African American Students Enrolled in the Primary Disability Category of Speech or Language Impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0149

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  • Accardo and colleagues provide an overview of effective writing interventions for school-age children with ASD. Most interventions took place in the classroom and used mixed approaches, combining “ingredients” like graphic organizers, video modeling, and constant time delay—a prompting strategy borrowed from ABA. Within the review, Tables 1 and 2 give an idea of what each one looked like, so check that out.

  • Baker & Blacher assessed behavior and social skills in 187 13-year-olds with ASD, intellectual disabilities (ID), or both. They found that having ID along with ASD was not associated with more behavior problems or less developed social skills as compared with ASD only.

  • Cerdán et al. found that eighth graders who had poor comprehension skills correctly answered reading comprehension questions more often when the question was followed by a rephrased, simplified statement telling them exactly what they needed to do.

  • Curran et al. found that preschool-aged children who are DHH and receive remote microphones systems in their homes have significantly better discourse skills (but no better vocabulary or syntax skills) than otherwise-matched children who don’t get those systems.

  • Facon & Magis found that language development, particularly vocabulary and syntax comprehension, does not plateau prematurely in people with Down Syndrome relative to people with other forms of intellectual disability. Language skills continue to show growth in both populations into early adulthood. (We’ve previously reviewed specific interventions that have resulted in language gains among older children and teens with Down Syndrome. )

  • Hu et al. suggest that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can improve matching skills in school-age children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Although techy and exciting, CAI on its own isn’t enough—evidence-based instructional strategies like prompting and reinforcement have to be programmed in, too. This CAI used discrete trial training, and was more efficient (fewer prompts and less therapy time were needed for mastery!) than a traditional, teacher-implemented approach with flashcards.

  • Lim et al. found that the literacy instruction program MULTILIT was effective with school-age children with Down syndrome. MULTILIT combines phonics and sight word recognition instruction, geared toward children with students who are “Making Up Lost Time in Literacy” (MULTILIT; get it?). The program was implemented 1:1 for 12 weeks, and the students made gains in phonological awareness, word reading and spelling. MULTILIT has been investigated by the developers, but this is the first time it’s been studied by other researchers—and with kids with Down syndrome in particular.  Note: This article wasn’t fully reviewed because the training (provided only in Australia) is not available to the majority of our readers.

  • Muncy et al. surveyed SLPs and school psychologists and found that, in general, these professionals are underprepared to assess and treat children with hearing loss and other, co-occurring disabilities, and that they lack confidence in this area. Participants reported many barriers to valuable collaboration with other professionals, like audiologists (hint: there aren’t enough of them!), and that they want more training in this area.

  • Schlosser et al. found that 3–7 year old children with ASD accurately identified more animated symbols than static symbols. The animated symbols represented verbs; for example, depicting a person turning around versus a still line drawing of “turn around.” It makes sense to see action verbs—well—in action; however, researchers acknowledge we can’t make grid displays full of animated symbols since that could be overstimulating. The next step is to test the effects of animation on symbol identification with other more well-known symbols sets like PCS.

  • Scott et al. used science books and a signed dialogic reading program with an 11-year-old Deaf student, and found increases in the student’s ability to answer comprehension questions.

  • St John et al. found that 92% of their sample of children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome also had a communication impairment. Pragmatic, language, and literacy impairments were common, and the researchers described some speech impairments as well. Establishing a comprehensive communication profile for this group is important because we’re still learning about Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by one or more extra X chromosomes.

  • Updates on PEERS, a structured social skills program for adolescents and young adults we’ve discussed before! Wyman & Claro used the school-based version of PEERS both with adolescents with ASD (the target audience) and those with intellectual disabilities (ID; an overlooked group in social skills research who may benefit nonetheless). Both groups of students improved their social knowledge, and the ID group (but not the ASD group) increased social interactions with friends outside of school. Meanwhile, Matthews et al. found that speeding up the traditional, clinic-based PEERS program, by offering it in 7 weeks (twice weekly sessions) instead of 14, didn’t reduce its effectiveness.

Accardo, A. L., Finnegan, E. G., Kuder, S. J., & Bomgardner, E. M. (2019). Writing Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Research Synthesis. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 1-19. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03955-9

Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2019). Brief Report: Behavior Disorders and Social Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does IQ Matter? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03954-w

Cerdán, R., Pérez, A., Vidal-Abarca, E., & Rouet, J. F. (2019). To answer questions from text, one has to understand what the question is asking: Differential effects of question aids as a function of comprehension skill. Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-019-09943-w

Curran, M., Walker, E. A., Roush, P., & Spratford, M. (2019). Using Propensity Score Matching to Address Clinical Questions: The Impact of Remote Microphone Systems on Language Outcomes in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-ASTM-18-0238

Facon, B., & Magis, D. (2019). Does the development of syntax comprehension show a premature asymptote among persons with Down Syndrome? A cross-sectional analysis. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-124.2.131

Hu, X., Lee, G. T., Tsai, Y, Yang, Y., & Cai, S. (2019). Comparing computer-assisted and teacher-implemented visual matching instruction for children with ASD and/or other DD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03978-2

Lim, L., Arciuli, J., Munro, N., & Cupples, L. (2019). Using the MULTILIT literacy instruction program with children who have Down syndrome. Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-019-09945-8

Matthews, N. L., Laflin, J., Orr, B. C., Warriner, K., DeCarlo, M., & Smith, C. J. (2019). Brief Report: Effectiveness of an Accelerated Version of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention for Adolescents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03939-9

Muncy, M. P., Yoho, S. E., & McClain, M. B. (2019). Confidence of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists and School Psychologists in Assessing Students With Hearing Loss and Other Co-Occurring Disabilities. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-18-0091

Schlosser, R. W., Brock, K. L., Koul, R., Shane, H., & Flynn, S. (2019). Does animation facilitate understanding of graphic symbols representing verbs in children with autism spectrum disorder? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0243

Scott, J. A., & Hansen, S. G. (2019). Comprehending science writing: The promise of dialogic reading for supporting upper elementary deaf students. Communication Disorders Quarterly. doi:10.1177/1525740119838253

St John, M., Ponchard, C., van Reyk, O., Mei, C., Pigdon, L., Amor, D. J., & Morgan, A. T. (2019). Speech and language in children with Klinefelter syndrome. Journal of Communication Disorders. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.02.003 

Wyman, J., & Claro, A. (2019). The UCLA PEERS School-Based Program: Treatment Outcomes for Improving Social Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Cognitive Deficits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03943-z

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  • Briley & Ellis found that 52% of children who stutter (CWS; ages 3–17) also had at least one additional developmental disability, compared to just 15% of children who do not stutter (CWNS), per parent report gathered in a large-scale survey. Specifically, CWS had significantly higher odds of having intellectual disability, learning disability, ADHD/ADD, ASD, or another delay than CWNS.

  • Deevy and Leonard found that preschoolers with DLD were less sensitive to number information (i.e. is vs. are) in sentences with fronted auxiliary verbs than younger, typically developing children. “Is the nice little boy running?” is an example of this form (note the auxiliary “is” at the front of the sentence). The authors suggest children with DLD might need explicit instruction to understand tense and agreement markers—in other words, it might not be enough to just practice producing them correctly.

  • Duncan & Lederberg examined the ways that teachers of K–2nd grade deaf/hard of hearing children communicated in the classroom and related it to the students’ language outcomes. They found that explicitly teaching vocabulary predicted improvements in both vocabulary and morphosyntax over the school year, and that reformulating/recasting children’s statements also predicted vocabulary growth.

  • Kelly et al. interviewed teenagers with high-functioning autism, who reported their perceptions of their own social communication skills. They shared individual experiences with challenges with verbal and nonverbal communication, managing challenging feelings during communication with peers, and feelings of isolation and rejection.

  • Mandak et al.* added to the evidence on Transition to Literacy (T2L) features in AAC software with visual scene displays (VSDs). They found that when digital books were programmed with these features—hotspots that, when touched, would speak the target word and display it dynamically—and used in therapy for preschool-aged children with autism, the children made gains in the ability to read targeted sight words.

  • Goodrich et al. administered three subtests of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) to 1,221 preschool children, including 751 who were Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Despite the TOPEL being written in English, they found that it provided reliable and valid measures of Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ early literacy skills in English.

*Disclosure: Kelsey Mandak is a writer for The Informed SLP. She was not involved in the selection or review of this article.  

Briley, P. M., & Ellis, C., Jr. (2018). The Coexistence of Disabling Conditions in Children Who Stutter: Evidence From the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0378

Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. (2018). Sensitivity to morphosyntactic information in preschool children with and without developmental language disorder: A follow-up study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0038

Duncan, M. K., & Lederberg, A. R. (2018). Relations Between Teacher Talk Characteristics and Child Language in Spoken-Language Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Classrooms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0475

Goodrich, J. M., Lonigan, C. J., & Alfonso, S. V. (2019). Measurement of early literacy skills among monolingual English-speaking and Spanish-speaking language-minority children: A differential item functioning analysis. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.10.007

Kelly, R., O’Malley, M., Antonijevic, S. (2018). ‘Just trying to talk to people… it’s the hardest’: Perspectives of adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder on their social communication skills. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. doi:10.1177/0265659018806754

Mandak, K., Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (2018). Digital Books with Dynamic Text and Speech Output: Effects on Sight Word Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3817-1

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Brinton et al. found that five elementary-age children with DLD rarely described characters’ mental states (responses, plans, emotions) when generating stories and struggled to answer direct questions about characters’ mental states. The authors suggest that children with DLD may have difficulty with social and emotional concepts. 

Chenausky et al. found that baseline phonetic inventory and ADOS scores were most predictive of speech target approximations post-speech therapy in minimally verbal children with autism (more than IQ, language, age). And that’s not terribly surprising (except the age part—cool that they made good speech gains in older elementary children!). Perhaps the more interesting thing about this study, though, is what they did in speech therapy. It’s called “auditory motor map training”, and is basically the addition of rhythm (tapping drums) and intonation (singing the speech targets) to speech therapy. The researchers are finding that adding these tactile and auditory cues is better than not having them; so worth trying! 

Cooke and Millard asked school-aged children who stutter what they considered to be the most important therapy outcomes. The children reported increased fluency, independence, and confidence, as well as others knowing how to support them and how to make communication situations feel easier. This study serves as a good reminder that stuttering is more than dysfluent speech. The cognitive (thoughts and attitudes) and affective (feelings) components should also play a role in how we evaluate therapy outcomes.  

Dyson et al. taught 20 vocabulary words to elementary-age children with low vocabulary scores using examples, games, and worksheets. After 10 weeks of 20-minute small-group sessions, children learned five new words on average; significantly more than children in a control group. (Email the authors for free materials!)

Giusto and Ehri found that third-graders with poor decoding and average listening comprehension benefitted from a partial-read aloud test accommodation with pacing (PRAP). When examiners read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and multiple choice questions, the students improved their reading comprehension of the test passages. Although you may not be directly assessing these students, these findings may be helpful if you’re ever in the position to recommend accommodations for this subset of children.

Gough Kenyon et al. found that, compared to typical peers, 10- to 11-year-olds with developmental language disorder (DLD) struggled with making elaborative inferences (drawing on background knowledge not stated) but not cohesive inferences (linking information given) after reading a passage. They suggest targeting elaborative inferencing to boost reading comprehension for children with DLD.

Millard et al. add to the evidence base for Palin Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for young children who stutter, finding a reduction in stuttering severity and improvements in both parent and child attitudes and confidence following a year of participation in the program.

Sabri & Fabiano-Smith analyzed a case study and found that, given early implantation and support in both languages, a bilingual child with cochlear implants can acquire two phonological systems, although likely at a slower rate than other bilingual children.

Using (and maybe struggling with) the Lidcombe Program with your young clients who stutter? Van Eerdenbrugh et al. studied the challenges clinicians have with implementing the program and surveyed experts to come up with solutions.

 

Brinton, B., Fujiki, M., & Asai, N. (2018). The ability of five children with developmental language disorder to describe mental states in stories. Communication Disorders Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1525740118779767.

Chenausky, K., Norton, A., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Schlaug, G. (2018). Behavioral predictors of improved speech output in minimally verbal children with autism. Autism Research. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1002/aur.2006.

Cooke, K., & Millard, S. K. (2018). The most important therapy outcomes for school-aged children who stutter: An exploratory study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1152.

Dyson, H. , Solity, J. , Best, W. and Hulme, C. (2018), Effectiveness of a small‐group vocabulary intervention programme: evidence from a regression discontinuity design. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 53: 947-958. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12404

Giusto, M., & Ehri, L. C. (2018). Effectiveness of a partial read-aloud test accommodation to assess reading comprehension in students with a reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0022219418789377

Gough Kenyon, S. M., Palikara, O., & Lucas, R. M. (2018). Explaining reading comprehension in children with developmental language disorder: The importance of elaborative inferencing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(10), 2517–2531. 

Millard, S. K., Zebrowski, P., & Kelman, E. (2018). Palin Parent–Child Interaction Therapy: The Bigger Picture. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1211–1223.

Sabri, M. & Fabiano-Smith, L. (2018). Phonological Development in a Bilingual Arabic–English-Speaking Child With Bilateral Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Case Study. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0162.

Van Eerdenbrugh, S., Packman, A., O'Brian, S., & Onslow, M. (2018). Challenges and Strategies for Speech-Language Pathologists Using the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 27(3S), 1259–1272.

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In case you were wondering, the theme of the month is: OMG how were there so many studies published this month?!

  • In a study of over 1200 families in poor rural regions, Burchinal et al. confirmed the presence of a large gap in school readiness skills among low SES children that emerges during the first five years of life. Specifically, children who experienced poverty before the age of two had more significant delays on their language, cognitive, social, and executive functioning skills by 2–3 years of age. Self-regulation and executive functioning skills played an important role in school readiness at age 5. Check out the original article for a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between poverty & school readiness.

  • Byrd et al. found that a 5-day intensive camp program that focused on social-emotional topics and desensitization toward stuttering (and NOT on increasing fluency), improved the attitudes of school-age children who stutter toward communication and their perceived ability to make friends.

  • Diepeveen et al. provided data to support the growing body of evidence that suggests that children with DLD (and cognitive scores within normal limits, so SLI) also frequently exhibit motor deficits. The motor skills of two groups of 253 four-to-eleven-year-olds—half with, and half without SLI—were evaluated. Results suggested that the SLI group demonstrated delays in three of the seven motor milestones, with particular deficits noted in fine motor development.

  • Denmark et al. found that deaf children with ASD produced fewer facial actions (such as widening eyes or furrowing/raising eyebrows intensely) needed to produce emotion signs like “demand” and “mischief” when retelling a story, compared to their typically-developing deaf peers. The study addresses the research gap related to how emotion processing and theory of mind affect this population’s ability to use facial actions when signing. 

  • Finestack & Satterlund surveyed over 300 pediatric SLPs about their typical grammar interventions. SLPs reported using evidence-based procedures such as modeling, recasting, requesting imitation, and explicit instruction. Their progress monitoring was evidence based as well, consisting of observation and language sampling. Many SLPs reported using TTR (type-token ratio) to measure progress, which is not evidence based and has been found to be ineffective. More research is needed to determine which goal attack strategies (the sequence in which you address goals) are evidence-based.

  • Lim and Charlop found that speaking a child’s heritage language during play-based intervention sessions seemed to help four bilingual children with ASD play in more functional and interactive ways. The experimenters followed scripts for giving play instructions, verbal praise, and making comments related to play in both English and each child’s heritage language (in this study, Korean or Spanish). None of the children played functionally or interactively before the intervention, but all of the children showed an increase in play during and after intervention sessions in both English and the heritage language, with more impressive gains seen in heritage language sessions. More research is needed, but SLPs should keep this in mind when working with bilingual children with ASD. 

  • If you’ve been wondering if standardized language assessments would ever transition to iPads, we may be heading that way. Marble-Flint et al. found that for children with ASD, there was no significant difference in performance between iPad and typical paper tests for the PPVT. This was true as long as the iPad format did not have any interactive features (sounds effects, visuals). 

  • Children who receive cochlear implants (CIs) often have morphosyntactic and vocabulary skills are somewhat delayed, but their phonological awareness skills are often significantly delayed. In a longitudinal study, Nittrouer et al. found that this pattern persists until at least 6th grade. Two intervention methods significantly predicted better language outcomes: bimodal stimulation and literacy acquisition/instruction.  

  • Swaminathan & Farquharson asked 575 school-based SLPs whether they used an RTI (“Response to Intervention”) model with children with speech sounds disorders (SSD). SLPs with smaller caseloads were more likely to use RTI, even though those with larger caseloads could potentially benefit the most from the model. They also found a lot of inconsistency in how RTI was interpreted and used. If you’re questioning using this model, the article does a nice job of RTI applied to SSD! 

  • van den Bedem et al. found that children with developmental language disorder are at high risk for depressive symptoms. The worse the child’s communication skills, the more inclined the child was to use maladaptive strategies. On a positive note, children with DLD respond just as well to emotion regulation strategies as children without DLD. Learning and utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies with our kids with DLD could help them cope with their everyday stress.

  • Vessoyan et al. analyzed case studies of four girls with Rett Syndrome (9–15 years old) who used eye-tracking technology to communicate. In all cases, the technology (with ongoing support) helped the girls work toward their individual communication goals, and parents reported both psychosocial benefits and satisfaction with the technology and services.

  • Werfel found that preschoolers with hearing loss 1) had lower MLUm and 2) were less accurate in using Brown’s morphemes when compared to age-matched peers with normal hearing. The author suggests monitoring the morphosyntax development of preschool children with hearing loss.

  

Burchinal, M., Carr, R.C., Vernon-Feagans, L.V., Blair, C., Cox, M. (2018). Depth, persistence, and timing of poverty and the development of school readiness skills in rural low-income regions: Results from the family life project. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 45, 115–130.

Byrd, C. T., Gkalitsiou, Z., Werle, D., & Coalson, G. A. (2018). Exploring the Effectiveness of an Intensive Treatment Program for School-Age Children Who Stutter, Camp Dream. Speak. Live.: A Follow-up Study. Seminars in Speech and Language. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1670669

Diepeveen, F. B., van Dommelen, P., Oudesluys-Murphy, A., & Verkerk, P. (2018). Children with specific language impairment are more likely to reach motor milestones late. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 44(6), 857–862. 

Denmark, T., Atkinson, J., Campbell, R., & Swettenham, J. (2018). Signing with the face: Emotional expression in narrative production in deaf children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-3756-x

Finestack, L.H., & Satterlund, K.E. (2018). Current practice of child grammar intervention: A survey of speech-language pathologists. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0168

Lim, N. & Charlop, M. H. (2018). Effects of English versus heritage language on play in bilingually exposed children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral Interventions. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/bin.1644

Marble-Flint, K.J., Strattman, K.H., & Schommer-Aikins, M.A. (2018). Comparing iPad and paper assessments for children with ASD: An initial study. Communication Disorders Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi: 10.3109/07434618.2011.644579.

Nittrouer, S., Miur, M., Tietgens, K., Moberly, A.C., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2018). Development of phonological, lexical, and syntactic abilities in children with cochlear implants across the elementary grades. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-18-0047.

Swaminathan, D., & Farquharson, K. (2018). Using Response to Intervention for Speech Sound Disorders: Exploring Practice Characteristics and Geographical Differences. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 3(SIG 16), 53–66.

van den Bedem, N. P., Dockrell, J.E., van Alphen, P.M., de Rooji, M., Samson, A.C., Harjunen, E.L., & Rieffe, C. (2018). Depressive symptoms and emotion regulation strategies in children with and without developmental language disorder: a longitudinal study. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12423.

Vessoyan, K., Steckle, G., Easton, B., Nichols, M., Mok Siu, V., & McDougall, J. (2018). Using eye-tracking technology for communication in Rett syndrome: perceptions of impact. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/07434618.2018.1462848.

Werfel, K. L. (2018). Morphosyntax production of preschool children with hearing loss: An evaluation of the extended optional infinitive and surface accounts. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61, 2313–2324.

And more

Boyce et al. found that school-aged children with cleft lip and/or palate had receptive and expressive language skills within the normal range, similar to their typically developing peers. Note that children with clefts in this study did not have a co-occurring syndromic diagnosis or other major medical condition. The findings remind us to evaluate all students individually, and without making assumptions based on diagnoses.

Caron et al. found interventions using AAC software with Transition to Literacy (T2L) features increased sight word recognition accuracy for kids with autism. T2L, currently available on a few speech generating devices/apps, is designed to make orthographic and phonological cues more salient for people who use AAC. Check out the full article for pictures that show how the app draws attention to the words—and be on the lookout for these features to make their way into more dynamic AAC systems.  

Guiberson & Crowe, recognizing that we have a limited evidence base for intervention with multilingual children with hearing loss, reviewed interventions designed for multilingual children only, children with hearing loss only, and multilingual children with hearing loss— specifically audition, speech, language, and literacy interventions. You’ll need to use your clinical judgment to apply the findings, but it’s a starting point if you find yourself supporting students with similar needs. 

Morin et al. evaluated the quality of research on the use of high-tech AAC to teach social-communication skills. They found that using high-tech AAC to teach social-communication skills to individuals with ASD or ID can be considered an evidence-based practice. Their review also indicated that high-tech AAC was not significantly better than low-tech AAC when teaching social-communication skills to this population.a

Ring et al. studied the efficacy of the Take Flight reading intervention, an Orton-Gillingham based approach with and added focus on phonological awareness, reading rate, and comprehension. Their results support previous findings on the effectiveness of the individual treatment components (synthetic phonics, etc.), including the benefit of adding comprehension work.

Sutherland et al. completed a systematic review of telehealth assessment and intervention for children and adults with ASD. They found that services delivered via telehealth were equivalent to those delivered face-to-face, however, the recipients of the majority of the interventions were parents, carers, and/or teachers. Those that did include individuals with ASD interacting with the interventionist were predominantly adults and older children with ASD. The authors emphasized that future research must look at telehealth services when providing direct services to people with ASD, especially young children.

We know it helps to leverage L1 when we teach English vocab (see our review of Méndez et al.), but how do you actually DO that if you're not bilingual yourself? One possible avenue might be computer-based bilingual vocabulary lessons tied to e-books. Wood et al. found that Kindergarten–1st grade English Learners who read e-books with embedded vocab instruction in Spanish and English made greater gains in vocabulary than those who only read the books.

Wood et al. found that electropalatography (EPG) could be an effective way to help people with Down Syndrome (DS) improve their articulation, and that the visual feedback EPG provides capitalizes on a strength of many people with DS. The authors emphasize that their findings, combined with others’, shows that individuals with DS can keep improving their speech and intelligibility into their teen years and beyond.

 

Boyce, J. O., Kilpatrick, N., Reilly, S., Da Costa, A., & Morgan, A. T. (2018). Receptive and Expressive Language Characteristics of School-Aged Children with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 53(5), 959–968.

Caron, J., Light, J., Holyfield, C., & McNaughton, D. (2018). Effects of Dynamic Text in an AAC App on Sight Word Reading for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 34(2), 143–154.

Guiberson, M., & Crowe, K. (2018). Interventions for Multilingual Children with Hearing Loss. Topics in Language Disorders, 38(3), 225–241.

Morin, K. L., Ganz, J. B., Gregori, E. V., Foster, M. J., Gerow, S. L., Genç-Tosun, D., & Hong, E. R. (2018). A systematic quality review of high-tech AAC interventions as an evidence-based practice. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 34, 104–117.

Ring, J.J., Avrit, K.J. & Black, J.L. (2017). Take Flight: The evolution of an Orton Gilingham-based curriculum. Annals of Dyslexia, 67, 383–400.

Sutherland, R., Trembath, D., & Roberts, J. (2018). Telehealth and autism: A systematic search and review of the literature. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 324–336.

Wood, C., Fitton, L., Petscher, Y., Rodriguez, E., Sunderman, G., & Lim, T. (2018). The effect of e-Book vocabulary instruction on Spanish–English speaking children. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 61, 1945–1969. 

Wood, S. E., Timmins, C., Wishart, J., Hardcastle, W. J., & Cleland, J. (2018). Use of electropalatography in the treatment of speech disorders in children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders / Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12407

Collaboration for the win!

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This study looked at the effect of interactive storybook reading (ISR) on the vocabulary skills of six preschoolers who are deaf or hard of hearing. They found that students were able to describe vocabulary words accurately after three weeks of intervention (four days per week, 15 minutes per day), and generalized their ability to describe vocabulary words to pictures that had not been presented during ISR. However, this study has some meaningful limitations—so why bring it to your attention?

Two big reasons. First, the article includes TONS of details on how to implement the intervention. Do you need a review on dialogic reading and interactive storybook reading? How about a refresher on why ISR is effective for students who are DHH? Would you like a description of the types of questions to ask during ISR? Materials and examples? How and when to get baseline, generalization, and maintenance measures? Check out the article!

Second, this study was a collaborative effort. Researcher and clinician (in this case, a TODHH) worked together to design and implement a study to see if this kind of intervention was feasible, ecologically valid, and effective in the classroom setting. And the intervention was actually adjusted to include word-meaning instruction, based on the TODHH’s recommendation. Involving clinicians in the research process offers a good chance that the interventions being studied will actually be used. We want to see more collaborations like this!

 

Trussell, J. W., Hasko, J., Kane, J., Amari, B., & Brusehaber, A. (2018). Interactive storybook reading instruction for preschoolers who are deaf and hard of hearing: A multiple probe across behaviors analysis. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. Advance online publication. doi:10.1044/2018_LSHSS-17-0085

Perspective Pieces