And more…

  • Fabiano-Smith & Hoffman found that Percent Consonants Correct–Revised (PCC–R), an informal measure of phonological skills normed on monolingual children, can also help identify phonological disorders in 5-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals. Typical bilingual learners lag in their phonology skills in the preschool years, but by age 5, they catch up to their monolingual peers. The authors warn that with kids younger than 5, or when assessing phonology using standardized measures, there’s still a serious risk of misdiagnosis.

  • Jean-Baptiste et al. found four question typesEpistemic (“What do you think?”), Procedural Action (“How do you do that?”), External State (“What’s happening here?”), and Causal (“How come?”)—most likely to elicit complete sentences from typically-developing preschoolers at play.

  • Pavelko et al. found that four-year-olds with language disorders and average nonverbal intelligence scored lower on measures of name writing than typically developing peers, and that phonemic awareness, alphabet knowledge, and letter writing skills explained name writing abilities. They recommend targeting all of these skills during emergent literacy intervention.

  • Therrien & Light found that a brief turn-taking training plus access to visual scene displays on an iPad increased communication and engagement in five preschool-aged AAC users with autism and their peers. This suggests that their previous findings (reviewed here) also apply to children with autism.


Fabiano-Smith, L. & Hoffman, K. (2018). Diagnostic Accuracy of Traditional Measures of Phonological Ability for Bilingual Preschoolers and Kindergarteners. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(1), 121-134. doi: 10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0043.

Jean-Baptiste, R., Klein, H.B., & Brates, B. (2017) What’s happening? And other questions obligating complete sentences as responses. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0265659017735960.

Pavelko, S. L., Lieberman, R. J., Schwartz, J., & Hahs-Vaughn, D. (2018). The contributions of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and letter writing to name writing in children with specific language impairment and typically developing children. American Journal of Speech Lang Pathology, 27(1), 166-180. doi: 10.1044/2017_AJSLP-17-0084.

Therrien, M. C. S. & Light, J. C. (2018). Promoting peer interaction for preschool children with complex communication needs and autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1044/2017_AJSLP-17-0104.