It’s 10 AM: Do you know where your gym teacher is?

When you hear “cotreatment,” what other professionals spring to mind? OTs? PTs? How about your friendly neighborhood adapted phys ed teacher? In this study, an SLP and an adapted PE teacher (I’m guessing they don’t like to be called APEs?) teamed up to teach concept vocabulary to 10 pre-kindergarteners with Down Syndrome.

Why target vocabulary in gym class? A couple of reasons. One, having physical experiences related to a new word increases the semantic richness of the learning—something that we know helps kids. Two, a branch of developmental theory (dynamic systems theory, if you’re interested!) holds that language and motor skills develop in a coordinated, interconnected way. Plus? Getting up and moving during your vocab lesson is fun!


Each week, five different concept words were targeted by the SLP only, the adapted PE teacher only, or both in a co-treatment condition. Teaching occurred in 30-minute large group lessons, four days per week for nine weeks total. Check out the article for specifics about what the lessons looked like in each condition—the key thing is that with co-treatment, the kids got to demonstrate receptive understanding of the concepts through a variety of gross motor actions.

Overall, the intervention had a weak effect with only the PE teacher (makes sense, since teaching words isn’t the point of gym), and a medium effect if the SLP was involved. Out of the ten children, four learned more concepts in co-treatment weeks as compared to weeks when the SLP or PE teacher worked alone. The other six did about the same either way. The authors noticed that the kids who learned better in co-treatment were the children with the highest non-verbal intelligence scores and better ability to use effortful control (so, for example, stopping when a grownup says to stop), but more research is needed to draw strong conclusions from those results. Big picture, here? This type of co-treatment, when done thoughtfully and collaboratively, doesn’t hurt and may help some kids. Also, when many of us are trying to get out of the therapy room and treat kids where they are, bringing intervention to gym class makes a lot of sense from a “least restrictive” point of view. And once again… it’s fun!


Lund, E., Young, A., & Yarbrough, R. (2019). The Effects of Co-Treatment on Concept Development in Children With Down Syndrome. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 1525740119827264. doi:10.1177/1525740119827264