Preschool & School-Age Samples
Each month, Informed SLP members receive a link to read, print, or listen to the Evidence You Can Use reviews:
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Here are some sample reviews.
They’re all editorial reviews of the research, with lots of links out to additional information and sometimes even free therapy materials (that’s our favorite— when the scientists share treatment protocols!)
Does the order of your therapy activities matter?
You see a kindergartener with developmental language disorder (DLD) for language therapy. You pick some toys, a game, or a book that will elicit lots of examples of the grammar targets you’re working on. While you play, you give her plenty of models, and use recasts to help her correct her own productions. Sounds pretty typical, yes?
This article has a tip to make that intervention even better: if you’re doing auditory bombardment as part of language therapy, do it at the end of your sessions.
So often we read research studies and think, “That sounds great, but how would I EVER implement it in my real practice?” Here, we have a small study examining a specific, practical question on how to make the therapy we’re doing more effective. YAY. More of this, please!
In the study, a group of 4–6-year-olds with DLD got a half hour of enhanced* conversational recast treatment for targeted morphemes, of which the first or last 2–4 minutes were devoted to an auditory bombardment activity—something like having the child turn over picture cards while the clinician said phrases with the target structure. Overall, the therapy was effective, and the children improved in their use of the focus morpheme compared to controls. But—the researchers found that more children benefited from the therapy when auditory bombardment came last. Why? The authors suggest that it helped “consolidate the child’s internal representation” of the morpheme. Doing the bombardment first didn’t seem to offer any advantage over not doing it at all, based on a comparison with equivalent treatment groups from the authors’ previous work.
*Recasting, where the clinician repeats the child’s utterance, correcting any errors of grammar, is an evidence-based language intervention strategy. The “enhanced” part means that clinicians got the children’s attention before doing the recast, and also that they made sure to use different verbs each time. We know children learn better from a wider variety of examples. Check out the paper for more details on how the actual therapy worked!
Plante, E., Tucci, A., Nicholas, K., Arizmendi, G. D., & Vance, R. (2018). Effective Use of Auditory Bombardment as a Therapy Adjunct for Children With Developmental Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. doi: 10.1044/2017_LSHSS-17-0077.
What we need to know about childhood trauma and narrative language skills
Childhood maltreatment is an unfortunate reality, and we know that children who have experienced trauma are also likely to have lower language skills. The authors of this study looked specifically at narrative language skills in children removed from their homes because of maltreatment. Why narrative? Victims of suspected maltreatment are likely to be interviewed as part of criminal cases, and the interviews may be the only evidence of what happened to them. When the stakes are that high, it’s crucial that we know about these children’s narrative ability.
The authors tested a group of elementary-aged children who were living away from their biological parents (with a relative, in foster care, or in a care facility) due to neglect and/or abuse. Children completed standardized tests of narrative and general language ability. Children’s narrative results were mixed, but 42% scored in the lower range, and they showed the most difficulty with producing (vs. comprehending) narratives. General language ability was related to narrative ability, but not perfectly. Children whose caregivers had lower levels of education also tended to have lower narrative skills.
So what can we do about this? As a field, we can increase awareness about the impact of early experiences on language development and on children’s ability to report their experiences. In our practice, we can assess narrative production in children who’ve experienced trauma or who’ve had difficult home lives and help those children build crucial narrative skills. And of course, we can be part of the village that steps in to give support to the children who need it most.
Snow, P. C., Timms, L., Lum, J. A. G., & Powell, M. B. (2019). Narrative language skills of maltreated children living in out-of-home care. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. doi:10.1080/17549507.2019.1598493.
Input–output symmetry: why it matters for AAC users, and a word list to help
Child output = speech………. Adult input = speech
Child output = AAC……….. Adult input = speech
Whoops!? See how that might be a problem for learning?
Child output = AAC………. Adult input = aided input (pointing to graphic symbols during speech)
No matter a child’s mode(s) of expressive communication, it’s our job to help ensure that they are getting receptive examples that match their expressive output, as often as possible. How? Encourage parents to use aided input, right? Simple!
Not simple. Consider this—are the words the family uses most frequently on the child’s device? Often times children’s AAC is programmed only for the child’s lexicon. But shouldn’t it also be set up for the words s/he is learning?
To help tackle the input–output asymmetry issue, this paper provides a list of words you may want to consider for programming young clients’ communication systems. The list is a compilation and comparison of data from three large sets, identifying words mothers use most frequently when speaking to their toddlers, as well as words most commonly spoken by toddlers and preschoolers.
They found that just over 250 words comprise most of mothers’ child-directed speech, with considerable overlap between mothers’ most frequent words and the words used by children (and this includes children unrelated to the mothers!… but arguably from similar cultural backgrounds). Another interesting finding: some mothers talk more than others (like, four times more), but the difference in lexical diversity among mothers (that is, number of different words) isn’t so high.
Though limitations include the fact that this research was done on typically-developing children, and it’s a new analysis of a ton of old data (from the late 80s forward), it “…provides a beginning place for guiding vocabulary selection.” So, basically, this list could be very useful as long as you take generational and cultural considerations in mind. So maybe add words like “tablet”? And please just ignore the fact that the data is on “mothers”, not parents in general—the world wasn’t as woke 20 years ago.
Quick, N., Erickson, K., Mccright, J. (2019). The most frequently used words: Comparing child-directed speech and young children's speech to inform vocabulary selection for aided input. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. doi: 10.1080/07434618.201
Note: You can also find a link to this research at the author’s institutional repository, here.
Like what you see so far?
That was just three web-based reviews. Remember— we also have printable and audio versions for members!
Each month, we search hundreds of journals trying to find clinically-relevant research to cover, and share everything usable that we find with you!
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