Normally we try to keep this section fairly brief for you all, but holy moly there was so much research this month!
Bradshaw, et al. examined differences in communication and play in groups of infants at high- and low-risk for ASD. High-risk 12-month-olds who were considered “prewalkers” (who didn’t stand or walk) showed significantly lower scores on the CSBS in terms of play skills, gesture use, word use, and behavior measures such as protesting. Even though both high-risk and low-risk groups had similar numbers of prewalkers, standers, and walkers, the authors suggest their results “confirm that the lower social communication scores observed in high-risk infant prewalkers are clinically significant and suggests that these infants may be at higher risk for social communication delays.” SLPs working in the PSP model could keep this information in mind while discussing intake and evaluation plans or while reviewing quarterly updates during teaming meetings. Note: the authors caution that the participants in their study were mostly white, highly educated families, and that results may not generalize to all populations.
In a study of over 1200 families in poor rural regions, Burchinal et al. confirmed the presence of a large gap in school readiness skills that emerges during the first five years of life. Specifically, children who experienced poverty before the age of two had more significant delays on their language, cognitive, social, and executive functioning. Self-regulation and executive functioning skills played an important role in school readiness at age five. Check out the original article for a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between poverty & school readiness.
If you’re an EI therapist, you’ve most likely evaluated a child who was born premature at one time or another, so you’re also most likely familiar with the idea of age correction. You may have corrected for age on one or more assessments, but you may have also wondered if that’s best practice. And, if it is, when should we stop correcting for age? Harel-Gardassi et al. used the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) test to see how age correction impacted the scores of preterm infants at 1, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. Not surprisingly, corrected age scores were found to be significantly higher than chronological scores at all ages, with factors such as gestational age and birth weight affecting the level of difference between the two scores. These findings also suggest that if you use the MSEL, you should be using age correction until the adjusted age of three, not the currently recommended age of two.
In terms of input, the large majority of what children, including infants, are exposed to on a day-to-day basis is connected speech, while isolated words are heard infrequently and inconsistently. So, do the single words that infants are exposed to have any kind of impact on their language development? This recent study by Keren-Portnoy et al. of 12-month-olds showed that isolated words, instead of words presented at the end of an utterance, were easier for the children to recognize and remember.
Lim and Charlop found that speaking a child’s heritage language during play-based intervention sessions seemed to help four bilingual children with ASD play in more functional and interactive ways. The experimenters followed scripts for giving play instructions, verbal praise, and making comments related to play in both English and each child’s heritage language (in this study, Korean or Spanish). None of the children played functionally or interactively before the intervention, but all of the children showed an increase in play during and after intervention sessions in both English and the heritage language, with more impressive gains seen in heritage language sessions. More research is needed, but SLPs should keep this in mind when working with bilingual children with ASD (note: study done on older children).
In a qualitative study by Núñez & Hughes, Latina mothers reported higher satisfaction with early intervention services when they had bilingual support through an interpreter or bilingual SLP, received clear explanations about services and paperwork, felt the SLP respected their wishes, and were provided with strategies to work on with their children outside of SLP sessions.
Rague et al. found that infants with Fragile X syndrome use fewer gestures than infants at both high and low risk for ASD. Children with Fragile X who used fewer gestures tended to have lower nonverbal abilities. A lack of early gesture use in infants with Fragile X may be an indicator of the child’s broad cognitive ability.
Thrum et al. found that toddlers between 18 and 24 months with language delay had significantly more socioemotional and behavioral problems compared to toddlers without language delay. At 18 months, more than half of children with language delays had scores within the range of clinical concern! These results underscore the importance of early detection & treatment for children with language delays.
Torrisi et al. found that toddlers’ communication scores on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQCS) were not directly associated with mothers’ diagnoses of PTSD related interpersonal violence, but communication development was affected when mothers showed more controlling behavior and were less sensitive to their toddlers. Both of these qualities of maternal behavior were also correlated with severity of PTSD symptoms. This is important information to keep in mind when providing services to families at risk for experiencing or with a history of interpersonal violence.
Yu, et al measured 9-month-old typically-developing infants’ attention to objects and joint attention with their parents, to tease out what exactly contributes to vocabulary growth in the first year of life. They found that sustained attention with and without joint attention predicted vocabulary size at 12 and 15 months, but joint attention alone did not predict vocabulary growth. We need more research to figure out exactly how to use this information clinically, but in the meantime, we can always continue to help caregivers make the best use of their children’s interest and attention during play to support vocabulary growth.
Bradshaw, J., Klaiman, C., Gillespie, S., Brane, N., Lewis, M., & Saulnier, C. (2018). Walking ability is associated with social communication skills in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Infancy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/infa.12242.
Burchinal, M., Carr, R.C., Vernon-Feagans, L.V., Blair, C., Cox, M. (2018). Depth, persistence, and timing of poverty and the development of school readiness skills in rural low-income regions: Results from the family life project. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 45, 115–130.
Harel-Gadassi, A., Friedlander, E., Yaari, M., Bar-Oz, B., Eventov-Friedman, S., Mankuta, D., & Yirmiya, N. (2018). Development assessment of preterm infants: Chronological or corrected age? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 80, 35–43.
Keren-Portnoy, T., Vihman, M., & Lindop Fisher R. (2018). Do infants learn from isolated words? An ecological study. Language Learning and Development. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/15475441.2018.1503542.
Lim, N. & Charlop, M. H. (2018). Effects of English versus heritage language on play in bilingually exposed children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral Interventions. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/bin.1644.
Thurm, A., Manwaring, S.S., Jimenez, C.C., Swineford, L., Farmer, C., Gallo, R., Maeda, M. (2018). Socioemotional and behavioral problems in toddlers with language delay. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38(5), 569–580.
Torrisi, R., Arnautovic, E., Pointet Perizzolo, V. C., Vital, M., Manini, A., Suardi, F., …, & Schechter, D. S. (2018). Developmental delay in communication among toddlers and its relationship to caregiving behavior among violence-exposed, posttraumatically stressed mothers. Research in Developmental Disabilities. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.04.008.
Yu, C., Suanda, S. H., & Smith, L. B. (2018). Infant sustained attention but not joint attention to objects at 9 months predicts vocabulary at 12 and 15 months. Developmental Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/desc.12735.