Infant Directed Speech: Not just for play!

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How often do you coach parents of the infants and toddlers on your caseload to incorporate language elicitation strategies into play? Probably a lot. And for good reason—infant directed speech (the spontaneous changes in a caregiver’s language and speech that support language development, commonly called “motherese”) is often automatic for parents when playing hide-and-seek or exploring those new birthday toys.

But how often do you coach parents to address communication development during feeding?  If this is already a part of your practice, pat yourself on the back!  Currently, the majority of research on infant directed speech is within the context of play, but this study found promising results when examining changes in mothers’ speech and language with their infants and young toddlers across play, milk feeding and solid feeding routines. See the full article for a handy graphic about specific differences across these conditions and a detailed explanation of what we know about infant directed speech so far, but here are some key take-aways when it comes to feeding routines and capitalizing on infant directed speech:

  1. Caregivers naturally make more attention-directing statements during solid feeding compared to their adult-directed speech baselines.

  2. Caregivers’ type-token ratios are higher during feeding than even in play. (And that skill can be really difficult to teach!)

  3. Feeding happens at least three times a day, every single day.

  4. You can address feeding and language goals simultaneously.

Admittedly, this study has some significant limitations. The sample size was fairly small and consisted of a very heterogenous group of mother–child dyads without any significant medical diagnoses or feeding difficulties. This study is also one of just a few to take an in-depth look at infant directed speech during feeding, and the authors have several suggestions for further investigation in this area. But if you are already inclined to work language development into all parts of a toddler’s day (and let’s face it—of course you are, you’re an SLP), this study should be a great excuse to have a snack with your next client and their caregiver!

  

Zimmerman, E., Connaghan, K., Hoover, J., Alu, D., & Peters, J. (2019) Is feeding the new play? Examination of the maternal language and prosody used during infant-directed speech. Infant Behavior and Development. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.01.005

Additional commentary:

  • The first author of this paper was interviewed in a podcast episode discussing this paper. Check it out!

  • In the United States, is seems like we’ve put a lot of value on parent–child play; however, this hasn’t always been the case. This opinion piece is an interesting commentary parent–child play interactions.